Glossary

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Term Definition
Non-Alcoholic-Fatty-Liver-Disease

is defined as the presence of fat in the liver ( with > 5,5% of liver cells being fatty, hepatic steatosis) after the excluding secondary causes of fat accumulation in the liver (e.g. significant alcohol consumption, certain medications, and other medical conditions). NAFLD occurs when the liver has problems breaking down lipids, causing fat to build up in the liver tissue. NAFLD is now the most common chronic liver disease in high-income countries, and it is estimated to affect at least 25%–40% of the general population. It can progress from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatic fibrosis to liver cancer.

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Observational studies

Like intervention studies, observational studies attempt to understand cause-and-effect relationships. However, unlike interventions, the researcher is not able to control how subjects are assigned to groups and/or which treatments each group receives. Researchers record variables’ values as they naturally occur (can be retrospective or prospective) during a certain follow up period (see Intervention studies).

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Over-the-counter drugs

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

 

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Oxycholesterols

is a group of cholesterol compounds that contain extra oxygen atoms were found to be highly toxic and highly effective in producing arteriosclerosis. The highly damaging oxycholesterols are found in foods in which cholesterol is subjected to heating and exposure to the oxygen of the air during food processing, cooking or preservation.

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Pancreatitis

is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas associated with inappropriate release of digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat as well as the release of the hormones glucagon and insulin into the blood stream. These hormones are involved in the blood glucose metabolism.

Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and most often resolves within several days. Most cases of acute pancreatitis are linked to gallstones. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use have been associated with risk of pancreatitis.

Chronic pancreatitis occurs most commonly after an episode of acute pancreatitis and is the result of ongoing inflammation of the pancreas. Damage to the pancreas from excessive alcohol use may not cause symptoms for many years, but then the person may suddenly develop severe pancreatitis symptoms, including severe pain and loss of pancreatic function, resulting in digestion and blood sugar abnormalities.

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Polyphenols

are mainly phytochemicals found abundantly in natural plant food sources. The most important food sources are fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and algae also supply certain polyphenols. Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (ie. flavanones in citrus fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples). Others, such as quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables, cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine.

In general, red wine will be richer in phenols abundant in the skin and seeds, such as anthocyanin, proanthocyanidins and flavonols, whereas the phenols in white wine will essentially originate from the pulp, and these will be the phenolic acids together with lower amounts of catechins and stilbenes. Average total polyphenol content measured by the Folin method is 216 mg/100 ml for red wine and 32 mg/100 ml for white wine. The content of phenols in rosé wine (82 mg/100 ml) is intermediate between that in red and white wines (see flavonoids).

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Prebiotics

are usually non-digestible carbohydrates, oligosaccharides or short polysaccharides (ie.  inulin, oligofructose, galactofructose, etc.). Prebiotics work in partnership with its host’s digestive system to derive energy and carbon from complex plant polysaccharides which would otherwise be lost in faeces.

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PREDIMED

The PREDIMED study is one of the few randomized controlled trials about the Mediterranean Diet. More than 7400 individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited and tracked in 11 study sites.

The study participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups:

  1. The participants receive advice on how to follow a Mediterranean diet as well as free extra-virgin olive oil,
  2. The participants receive advice on how to follow a Mediterranean diet as well as free nuts,
  3. The control group receives advice on how to follow a low-fat diet.

The main end-points that the researchers looked for were cardiovascular events such as heart attacks, strokes and deaths from cardiovascular causes.

The study was stopped early after 4.8 years of follow-up as researchers found that the participants following a Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil or nuts had a 30% lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the control group.

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Prehypertension

is defined as levels of 120--‐139, Mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 80--‐89 mm, Hg for diastolic blood pressure.

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Prospective study

A prospective study (sometimes called a prospective cohort study) is a type of cohort study, or group study, where participants are enrolled into the study before they develop the disease or outcome in question. The opposite is a retrospective study, where researchers enroll people who already have the disease/condition. Prospective studies typically last a few years, with some lasting for decades.

Study participants typically have to meet certain criteria to be involved in the study. For example, they may have to be of a certain age, profession, or race. Once the participants are enrolled, they are followed for a period of time to see who gets the outcome in question (and who doesn’t).

Participants are followed for years and data is collected on the factors of interest, which might include:

  • When the subject develops the condition,
  • When they drop out of the study or become “lost”,
  • When their exposure status changes,
  • When they die.

https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/prospective-study/

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Proteinuria

is a condition where the urine contains an abnormal amount of proteins. Albumin is the main protein in the blood. Proteins are the building blocks for all body parts, including muscles, bones, hair, and nails. Proteins in the blood also perform a number of important functions. They protect the body from infection, help blood clot, and keep the right amount of fluid circulating throughout the body.

As blood passes through healthy kidneys, the waste products are filtered out and proteins that the body needs, like albumin and other proteins, are kept. Most proteins are too big to pass through the kidneys' filters into the urine. However, proteins from the blood can leak into the urine when the filters of the kidney, called glomeruli, are damaged.

Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can result from diabetes, high blood pressure, and diseases that cause inflammation in the kidneys. If CKD progresses, it can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), when the kidneys fail completely. An individual with ESRD must receive a kidney transplant or regular blood-cleansing treatments called dialysis.

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Publication bias

The term “Publication bias” in a broader sense refers to a number of factors that suppress and distort publication or dissemination of relevant empirical results, including selection biases due to language, availability, cost, familiarity, impact, timing, citation and media coverage (in particular, evidence of selective use of results and outcomes on the part of primary investigators and health policy interest groups).

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Red Blood Cells deformability

refers to the ability of red blood cells (erythrocytes, RBC) to change shape under a given level of applied stress, without rupturing. This is an important property because erythrocytes must change their shape extensively under the influence of mechanical forces in fluid flow or while passing through microcirculation

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Rheumatoid arthritis

is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic, inflammatory arthritis leading to progressive joint and organ system damage and increasing disability. The rate is three times higher in women than in men. Both genetic and environmental factors (such as smoking, hormone use) seem to play a role in the risk of developing RA.

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Steatosis

Fatty liver is the collection of excessive amounts of triglycerides and other fats inside liver cells.

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