Glossary

Reference: Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com

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Term Definition
Polyphenols

are mainly phytochemicals found abundantly in natural plant food sources. The most important food sources are fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and algae also supply certain polyphenols. Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (ie. flavanones in citrus fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples). Others, such as quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables, cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine.

In general, red wine will be richer in phenols abundant in the skin and seeds, such as anthocyanin, proanthocyanidins and flavonols, whereas the phenols in white wine will essentially originate from the pulp, and these will be the phenolic acids together with lower amounts of catechins and stilbenes. Average total polyphenol content measured by the Folin method is 216 mg/100 ml for red wine and 32 mg/100 ml for white wine. The content of phenols in rosé wine (82 mg/100 ml) is intermediate between that in red and white wines (see flavonoids).

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Prebiotics

are usually non-digestible carbohydrates, oligosaccharides or short polysaccharides (ie.  inulin, oligofructose, galactofructose, etc.). Prebiotics work in partnership with its host’s digestive system to derive energy and carbon from complex plant polysaccharides which would otherwise be lost in faeces.

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Prehypertension

is defined as levels of 120--‐139, Mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 80--‐89 mm, Hg for diastolic blood pressure.

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Proteinuria

is a condition where the urine contains an abnormal amount of proteins. Albumin is the main protein in the blood. Proteins are the building blocks for all body parts, including muscles, bones, hair, and nails. Proteins in the blood also perform a number of important functions. They protect the body from infection, help blood clot, and keep the right amount of fluid circulating throughout the body.

As blood passes through healthy kidneys, the waste products are filtered out and proteins that the body needs, like albumin and other proteins, are kept. Most proteins are too big to pass through the kidneys' filters into the urine. However, proteins from the blood can leak into the urine when the filters of the kidney, called glomeruli, are damaged.

Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can result from diabetes, high blood pressure, and diseases that cause inflammation in the kidneys. If CKD progresses, it can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), when the kidneys fail completely. An individual with ESRD must receive a kidney transplant or regular blood-cleansing treatments called dialysis.

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Publication bias

The term “Publication bias” in a broader sense refers to a number of factors that suppress and distort publication or dissemination of relevant empirical results, including selection biases due to language, availability, cost, familiarity, impact, timing, citation and media coverage (in particular, evidence of selective use of results and outcomes on the part of primary investigators and health policy interest groups).

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Red Blood Cells deformability

refers to the ability of red blood cells (erythrocytes, RBC) to change shape under a given level of applied stress, without rupturing. This is an important property because erythrocytes must change their shape extensively under the influence of mechanical forces in fluid flow or while passing through microcirculation

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Rheumatoid arthritis

is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic, inflammatory arthritis leading to progressive joint and organ system damage and increasing disability. The rate is three times higher in women than in men. Both genetic and environmental factors (such as smoking, hormone use) seem to play a role in the risk of developing RA.

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Steatosis

Fatty liver is the collection of excessive amounts of triglycerides and other fats inside liver cells.

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Thyroid cancer

is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. There are several types of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. In these cancers, the cells look a lot like normal thyroid tissue when seen under a microscope. These cancers develop from thyroid follicular cells.

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Ulcerative colitis

or Crohn's disease (CD) is the most common type of inflammatory bowel disease. Ulcerative colitis affects only the colon and rectum. Crohn's Disease can affect any part of the digestive tract.

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