Glossary

Reference: Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com

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Term Definition
Pancreatitis

is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas associated with inappropriate release of digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat as well as the release of the hormones glucagon and insulin into the blood stream. These hormones are involved in the blood glucose metabolism.

Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and most often resolves within several days. Most cases of acute pancreatitis are linked to gallstones. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use have been associated with risk of pancreatitis.

Chronic pancreatitis occurs most commonly after an episode of acute pancreatitis and is the result of ongoing inflammation of the pancreas. Damage to the pancreas from excessive alcohol use may not cause symptoms for many years, but then the person may suddenly develop severe pancreatitis symptoms, including severe pain and loss of pancreatic function, resulting in digestion and blood sugar abnormalities.

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Polyphenols

are mainly phytochemicals found abundantly in natural plant food sources. The most important food sources are fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and algae also supply certain polyphenols. Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (ie. flavanones in citrus fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples). Others, such as quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables, cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine.

In general, red wine will be richer in phenols abundant in the skin and seeds, such as anthocyanin, proanthocyanidins and flavonols, whereas the phenols in white wine will essentially originate from the pulp, and these will be the phenolic acids together with lower amounts of catechins and stilbenes. Average total polyphenol content measured by the Folin method is 216 mg/100 ml for red wine and 32 mg/100 ml for white wine. The content of phenols in rosé wine (82 mg/100 ml) is intermediate between that in red and white wines (see flavonoids).

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Prebiotics

are usually non-digestible carbohydrates, oligosaccharides or short polysaccharides (ie.  inulin, oligofructose, galactofructose, etc.). Prebiotics work in partnership with its host’s digestive system to derive energy and carbon from complex plant polysaccharides which would otherwise be lost in faeces.

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Prehypertension

is defined as levels of 120--‐139, Mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 80--‐89 mm, Hg for diastolic blood pressure.

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Proteinuria

is a condition where the urine contains an abnormal amount of proteins. Albumin is the main protein in the blood. Proteins are the building blocks for all body parts, including muscles, bones, hair, and nails. Proteins in the blood also perform a number of important functions. They protect the body from infection, help blood clot, and keep the right amount of fluid circulating throughout the body.

As blood passes through healthy kidneys, the waste products are filtered out and proteins that the body needs, like albumin and other proteins, are kept. Most proteins are too big to pass through the kidneys' filters into the urine. However, proteins from the blood can leak into the urine when the filters of the kidney, called glomeruli, are damaged.

Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can result from diabetes, high blood pressure, and diseases that cause inflammation in the kidneys. If CKD progresses, it can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), when the kidneys fail completely. An individual with ESRD must receive a kidney transplant or regular blood-cleansing treatments called dialysis.

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Publication bias

The term “Publication bias” in a broader sense refers to a number of factors that suppress and distort publication or dissemination of relevant empirical results, including selection biases due to language, availability, cost, familiarity, impact, timing, citation and media coverage (in particular, evidence of selective use of results and outcomes on the part of primary investigators and health policy interest groups).

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