03 May 2018 In Diabetes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to examine and summarize studies reporting on the epidemiology, the risk of developing diabetes, and the cardiovascular effects on individuals with diabetes of different levels of alcohol consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Men consume more alcohol than women in populations with and without diabetes. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of diabetes in the majority of the studies, whereas heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are at increased risk for diabetes. Among people with diabetes, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption reduces risks of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations with diabetes compared to the general population. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of diabetes and, as in the general population, improves cardiovascular health in patients with diabetes. Type of alcoholic beverage, gender, and body mass index are factors that affect these outcomes
03 May 2018 In Cardiovascular System
We tested whether teetotalism explains the upturn in cardiovascular risk for non-drinkers and whether wine is a more favorable alcohol type. We studied 115,592 men and women aged 40-44 years who participated in the age 40 program in Norway in 1994-1999 and were followed for an average of 16 years with 550 cardiovascular deaths. Self-reported number of glasses of beer, wine and spirits during 14 days was transformed to alcohol units/day. One unit is approximately 8 grams of pure alcohol. The mean and median number of alcohol units/day were 0.70 and 0.46. Teetotallers had higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than alcohol consumers, multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.97 (1.52-2.56). The use of alcohol-related deaths as endpoint substantiated a selection of previous alcohol users to the teetotal group. Without teetotallers there was no association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality. However, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio per one unit/day of wine was 0.76 (0.58-0.99). The corresponding figures for beer and spirits were 1.04 (0.94-1.15) and 0.98 (0.75-1.29). The upturn in risk for non-drinkers could be explained by a higher risk for teetotallers who likely included previous alcohol users or teetotalers who started to drink during follow-up. Wine gave the most favorable risk estimates
03 May 2018 In Cancer
In this article, we reviewed the association between alcohol drinking and head and neck cancer (HNC) and its subsites, using the available literature. Alcohol drinking is an established risk factor for HNC, and this association may be stronger among cancers of the oropharynx and hypopharynx than the oral cavity or larynx. In addition, higher alcohol consumption over a shorter period was more harmful than fewer alcohol consumption over a longer period, and the most frequently consumed alcoholic beverages in a population is likely to be associated with the highest risk of HNC in that population. The risk of HNC after >/= 20 years of alcohol cessation appear to be similar to the risk among never drinkers. The interaction between genetic polymorphisms related to alcohol metabolism and alcohol drinking on the risk of HNC has been noted, and the prevalence of these genetic polymorphisms in each population should be of concern. Finally, the association between alcohol drinking and the survival of individuals with HNC remains unclear, and mortality due to competing causes should be considered in future research to evaluate this association
03 May 2018 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and CVD in U.S. adults. METHODS: Data were obtained by linking 13 waves of the National Health Interview Surveys (1997 to 2009) to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2011. A total of 333,247 participants >/=18 years of age were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption patterns were categorized into 6 groups: lifetime abstainers; lifetime infrequent drinkers; former drinkers; and current light, moderate, or heavy drinkers. Secondary exposure included participants' binge-drinking status. The main outcome was all-cause, cancer, or CVD mortality. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.2 years (2.7 million person-years), 34,754 participants died of all causes (including 8,947 CVD deaths and 8,427 cancer deaths). Compared with lifetime abstainers, those who were light or moderate alcohol consumers were at a reduced risk of mortality for all causes (light-hazard ratio [HR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.82; moderate-HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.82) and CVD (light-HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.80; moderate-HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.78), respectively. In contrast, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.19) and cancer (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.42) in adults with heavy alcohol consumption. Binge drinking >/=1 d/week was also associated with an increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.23) and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: Light and moderate alcohol intake might have a protective effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in U.S. adults. Heavy or binge drinking was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality
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