23 November 2020 In Cancer

PURPOSE: The aim of current systematic review was to update the body of evidence on associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and risk of cancer mortality, site-specific cancer in the general population; all-cause, and cancer mortality as well as cancer reoccurrence among cancer survivors.

METHODS: A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case-control and cohort studies published up to April 2020 was performed using PubMed and Scopus. Study-specific risk estimates for the highest versus lowest adherence to the MedDiet category were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Certainty of evidence from cohort studies and RCTs was evaluated using the NutriGrade scoring system.

RESULTS: The updated search revealed 44 studies not identified in the previous review. Altogether, 117 studies including 3,202,496 participants were enclosed for meta-analysis. The highest adherence to MedDiet was inversely associated with cancer mortality (RRcohort: 0.87, 95% CI 0.82, 0.92; N = 18 studies), all-cause mortality among cancer survivors (RRcohort: 0.75, 95% CI 0.66, 0.86; N = 8), breast (RRobservational: 0.94, 95% CI 0.90, 0.97; N = 23), colorectal (RRobservational: 0.83, 95% CI 0.76, 0.90; N = 17), head and neck (RRobservational: 0.56, 95% CI 0.44, 0.72; N = 9), respiratory (RRcohort: 0.84, 95% CI 0.76, 0.94; N = 5), gastric (RRobservational: 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.80; N = 7), bladder (RRobservational: 0.87, 95% CI 0.76, 0.98; N = 4), and liver cancer (RRobservational: 0.64, 95% CI 0.54, 0.75; N = 4). Adhering to MedDiet did not modify risk of blood, esophageal, pancreatic and prostate cancer risk.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results suggest that highest adherence to the MedDiet was related to lower risk of cancer mortality in the general population, and all-cause mortality among cancer survivors as well as colorectal, head and neck, respiratory, gastric, liver and bladder cancer risks. Moderate certainty of evidence from cohort studies suggest an inverse association for cancer mortality and colorectal cancer, but most of the comparisons were rated as low or very low certainty of evidence.

13 October 2020 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: In accordance with the scientific literature heavy alcohol consumption (>50g per day) represents a risk factor for several diseases development, including cancer. However, the oncogenic role of light alcohol drinking (
25 August 2020 In Diabetes

Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects.

Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption. Yet, it is suggested that the physician and patient should discuss alcohol use. In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, 224 abstainers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to consume red wine, white wine or mineral water for two years.

Here, we summarize our previous findings, offer new evidence concerning the differential effects of wine consumption among men and women, and further suggest that initiating moderate alcohol consumption among well-controlled persons with type 2 diabetes is apparently safe, in regard to changes in heart rate variability and carotid plaque formation

25 August 2020 In Cancer

AIMS: Alcohol intake has been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer. However, the dose-response analysis of different alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine and beer) is not clear. Our meta-analysis aims to provide a dose-response estimation between different alcohols and breast cancer risk.

METHODS: Search of PubMed and Web of Science and manual searches were conducted up to 1 December 2018, and summary relative risks (RRs) and attributable risk percentage (ARP) for alcohol intake on the development of breast cancer were calculated. Dose-response meta-analysis modeled relationships between drinking type and breast cancer risk. Sources of heterogeneity were explored, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of findings.

RESULTS: In total, 22 cohort studies and 45,350 breast cancer cases were included. Current drinkers for ER+ had an increased risk compared with never drinkers. In dose-response analysis, there was a statistically significant linear trend with breast cancer risk increasing gradually by total alcohol and wine dose: when adding 10 g per day, the risk increased by 10.5% (RR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.08-1.13) in total alcohol and 8.9% (RR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.04-1.14) in wine. For postmenopausal women, the risk increases by 11.1% (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.09-1.13) with every 10 g of total alcohol increase. Furthermore, the breast cancer alcohol-attributed percentage is higher in Europe than in North America and Asia.

CONCLUSIONS: The effect of drinking on the incidence of breast cancer is mainly manifested in ER+ breast cancer. Quantitative analysis showed total drinking had a significant risk for breast cancer, especially for postmenopausal women. However, for different alcohols, just wine intake has the similar results.

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