27 September 2019 In General Health

Alcohol consumption is a significant public health issue worldwide. The rat model and epidemiological studies have both reported conflicting results about the effects of alcohol on the kidneys. We aimed to explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health Insurance research database, and the National Deaths Dataset were used. Standardized in-person interviews were executed in 2001, 2005, and 2009 to obtain the demographic characteristics of study population. The participants were followed up until 2013. The primary outcome was new-onset chronic kidney disease. We analyzed 45,200 adults older than 18 years (50.8% men and 49.2% women), and the overall mean (SD) age was 42.73 (16.64) years. During the 8.5 (3.5) years of follow-up, new-onset chronic kidney disease was recognized in 1535 (5.5%), 292 (2.7%), and 317 (4.9%) non-drinking, social-drinking, and regular-drinking participants, respectively. The participants who were social and regular drinkers had a significantly decreased risk of chronic kidney disease incidence (social drinking: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.97; p = 0.018; regular-drinking: AHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98; p = 0.024), with baseline demographics and comorbidities adjusted. In conclusion, social and regular drinkers had decreased risk of chronic kidney disease when compared with non-drinkers.

27 September 2019 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, its association with subsequent risk of breast cancer death is unclear.

METHODS: We followed 4523 women with complete information on relevant risk factors for mortality; these women were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. During follow up (median, 8.6 years), 1055 women died; 824 died from breast cancer. The information on alcohol consumption before diagnosis was collected shortly after breast cancer diagnosis (average: 5.1 months) during an in-person interview which used a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific mortality, mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, and all-cause mortality associated with alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis and during recent periods of time prior to breast cancer diagnosis.

RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.01). Compared to non-drinkers, women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category (>/=7 drinks/week) had 25% lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.56-1.00). Breast cancer mortality risk was also reduced among women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category in two recent time periods (5-year period ending 2-years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95; 2-year period immediately prior to breast cancer diagnosis: HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). Furthermore, analyses of average weekly alcohol consumption by beverage type from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis suggested that wine consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk (wine Ptrend = 0.06, beer Ptrend = 0.24, liquor Ptrend = 0.74). No association with any of these alcohol consumption variables was observed for mortality risk due to causes other than breast cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence that alcohol consumption before breast cancer diagnosis increases subsequent risk of death from breast cancer.

12 August 2019 In Cancer

Background: Alcohol is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because it induces hepatocellular carcinoma (among other cancers) in humans. An excessive alcohol intake may result in fatty liver, acute/chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis and eventually lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been reported that alcohol abuse increases the relative risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by 3- to 10-fold.

Aim and Methods: To clarify the known mechanisms of alcohol-related carcinogenesis, we searched Pubmed using the terms alcohol and immune mechanism, alcohol and cancer, and immune mechanism and cancer and summarized the articles as a qualitative review.

Results: From a clinical perspective, it is well known that alcohol interacts with other factors, such as smoking, viral hepatitis, and diabetes, leading to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. There are several possible mechanisms through which alcohol may induce liver carcinogenicity, including the mutagenic effects of acetaldehyde and the production of ROS due to the excessive hepatic deposition of iron. Furthermore, it has been reported that alcohol accelerates hepatitis C virus-induced liver tumorigenesis through TLR4 signaling. Despite intense investigations to elucidate the mechanisms, they remain poorly understood.

Conclusion: This review summarizes the recent findings of clinical and pathological studies that have investigated the carcinogenic effects of alcohol in the liver.

09 August 2019 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a common modifiable lifestyle factor. Alcohol may be a risk factor for frailty, however, there is limited evidence in the literature.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine the association of alcohol consumption with the risk of incident frailty.

METHODS: This is a prospective panel study of 2544 community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older in England. Frailty status defined by frailty phenotype criteria was measured at baseline and 4 years later. Participants free of frailty at baseline were divided into 5 groups based on quantity of self-reported alcohol consumption per week with cut-points at 0, 7, 14, and 21 UK units per week. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated for incident frailty according to the alcohol consumption using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Compared with the low consumption group (>0 and 21 units per week) had a significantly lower incident frailty risk (unadjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.270.75, P < .01), which became nonsignificant on adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.371.13, P = .12).

CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: We found that nondrinkers were more likely than those with low alcohol consumption to develop frailty, but this appeared to be explained by poorer baseline health status. No evidence was found for an association between high levels of alcohol consumption and becoming frail. Future studies with information on life-course history of alcohol use, especially for those classified as nondrinkers in old age, are warranted.

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