28 September 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effect of alcohol, as well as the combined effect of seven lifestyle factors, on all-cause mortality in older adults (baseline age 70 years).

METHODS: Data was derived from the population-based Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort study, including 1124 participants from the 2014-16 examination. Risk consumption was defined as > 98 g alcohol per week, and hazardous drinking was based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Cox regression models were used to examine the individual effect of alcohol consumption, as well as the combined effect of seven lifestyle risk factors (high alcohol consumption, lifetime smoking, unhealthy Body Mass Index, insufficient physical activity, sedentary behavior, insufficient/prolonged sleep, unhealthy dietary pattern) on all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 81 (7.2%) participants died. Neither risk consumption nor hazardous drinking were associated with elevated mortality, but hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of mortality in those with insufficient physical activity. Those with at least five lifestyle risk factors had an increased all-cause mortality compared to those fulfilling criteria for a maximum of one lifestyle risk factor. High alcohol consumption showed a relatively minor impact on this risk, while physical activity and unhealthy dietary pattern had an independent effect on mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: In this particular sample, there was no independent effect of alcohol on the risk of 8-year all-cause mortality. However, an interaction effect of physical activity was observed. It may be that high alcohol consumption per se is less important for mortality among older adults. However, a combination of several unhealthy lifestyle behaviors was linked to a substantial increase in the risk of mortality in Swedish older adults. Also, it has to be emphasized that high alcohol consumption may have other adverse health effects apart from mortality among older adults.

28 September 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders have been categorized as a 'strongly modifiable' risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and cognition in older adults and if it is different across sexes or depends on amyloid-beta (Abeta) accumulation in the brain. METHODS: Cognitively unimpaired older adults (N = 4387) with objective and subjective cognitive assessments and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging were classified into four categories based on their average daily alcohol use.

Multivariable linear regression was then used to test the main effects and interactions with sex and Abeta levels. RESULTS: Individuals who reported no alcohol consumption had lower scores on the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) compared to those consuming one or two drinks/day. In sex-stratified analysis, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was more prominent in females. Female participants who consumed two drinks/day had better performance on PACC and Cognitive Function Index (CFI) than those who reported no alcohol consumption.

In an Abeta-stratified sample, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was present only in the Abeta- subgroup.

The interaction between Abeta status and alcohol consumption on cognition was not significant. CONCLUSION: Low or moderate consumption of alcohol was associated with better objective cognitive performance and better subjective report of daily functioning in cognitively unimpaired individuals. The association was present only in Abeta- individuals, suggesting that the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on cognition is independent of Abeta pathology. Further investigation is required with larger samples consuming three or more drinks/day.

31 March 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: It has already been established that the consumption of alcoholic beverages increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in dose-response.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 6132 participants of both sexes aged between 35 and 74 years, who were active and retired workers from six Brazilian states. Heavy drinkers were categorized by sex: men > 210 g/week and women > 140 g/week; moderate drinkers: men /=83 mg/dL).

We used binary logistic regression to assess associations between baseline alcohol intake and HDL-C, which were adjusted for sex, age, income, physical activity, kilocalories and body mass index (BMI), and we found an positive association between extremely high HDL-C and the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. These participants were mostly women with a high income, lower waist circumference, kilocalorie consumption and also a higher consumption in all categories of alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSION: Excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher probability of extremely high HDL-C.

23 February 2023 In General Health

PURPOSE: To examine whether higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to increased alcohol consumption and dependence among a large sample of adults attending a preventive medicine clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 38,653 apparently healthy patients who visited the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX) for preventive medical examinations (1988-2019) and enrolled in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. The primary independent variable was cardiorespiratory fitness, based on a maximal treadmill test, and the dependent variables were alcohol consumption and dependence (self-reported).

The relations between fitness category (low, moderate, high) and alcohol consumption (low, moderate, heavy) and suggested alcohol dependence (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener score ≥2) among women and men were estimated via multivariable regression while adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, birth year cohort, marital status, and body mass index).

RESULTS: Women within the moderate and high fitness categories had 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.91) and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.77-2.58) greater odds of moderate/heavy alcohol consumption, respectively, in comparison to their low fitness counterparts. Similarly, moderate and high fit men had 1.42 (95% CI, 1.30-1.55) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.49-1.80) times greater odds of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption, respectively, in comparison to the low fitness group. In addition, among men who were heavy drinkers (but not women), higher fitness levels were related to lower rates of suggested alcohol dependence. Specifically, these men had 45.7%, 41.7%, and 34.9% proportions of clinically relevant alcohol problems across low, moderate, and high fitness categories (adjusted P for trend <0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher fitness levels are significantly related to greater alcohol consumption among a large cohort of adult patients. Interventions focusing on increasing fitness (via physical activity promotion) might consider concurrently aiming to reduce alcohol consumption.

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