13 October 2020 In General Health
Five different wines (standard Grasevina, macerated Grasevina with and without sulfur, rose, and standard Plavac Mali), all typical Croatian wines, were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Escherichia coli bacterial strains (ATCC((R)) 25922 and ATCC((R)) 8739) in vitro and using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets as food matrix. The chemical composition of wines (pH, acidity, alcohol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, tannins, and sulfur content) and antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), agar-well diffusion method) were determined. The total phenolic content of the wines ranged from 305-3210 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter (GAE/L), and did not correlate to antimicrobial activity. The two wines with the lowest phenolic content (standard Grasevina and rose) had the lowest MIC values (122 and 429 mg GAE/L). A specific relation between the winemaking process and a particular MIC value was not established. There was also no relation found between the pH value, ethanol content, sulfur, or phenolics in regards to the antimicrobial effect. In fish fillets marinated in wine + water mixture (v/v = 1:1) and inoculated with 7 log colony forming units (CFU)/25 g the growth of bacteria was reduced after three days of storage at 4 degrees C. Subsequent storage resulted in the growth of bacteria in all samples, with the lowest growth of E. coli ATCC((R)) 25922 in macerated Grasevina and E. coli ATCC((R)) 8739 in standard Grasevina. All wines showed the capacity to reduce the number and growth of heavily infected sea bass filets, but correlation with specific wine constituents was not found. Taking into account the numerous reactive mechanisms between food and wine, all in vitro studies in controlled laboratory conditions should be further verified in the relevant environment, and additional research is needed to clarify the role of individual wine components in the mechanism of antimicrobial activity.
13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Although, three decades have pasted from the introduction of "French Paradox", is still an issue for debate. Epidemiology supports the J-shaped relationship between wine consumption and vascular events as well as cardiovascular mortality with a maximum protection at 21 g of alcohol consumption in the form of wine per day. Nevertheless, the aforementioned studies have used an observational design that raises concerns about potential confounding. Randomized clinical studies may provide data to end the controversy and in parallel with in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanisms by which wine affects cardiovascular disease. In this concept, this review aims to address the presence of bioactive wine micro constituents, their potential mechanisms of action and also to summarize the cardio-protective effects of wine intake based on clinical trials. The role of wine micro-constituents in inflammation and haemostasis is discussed in detail.
25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds
There is a growing body of evidence implicating the gut 'microbiome' role in overall human health. Bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are generally considered to be beneficial and are commonly used in probiotic applications, whereas increases in some genera including Clostridum, Eubacterium and Bacteroides are implicated in negative health outcomes. Dietary polyphenols are bioactive compounds that have been found to increase the numbers of beneficial bacteria and antimicrobial actions against pathogenic bacteria, however most studies have been conducted in animal models or in-vitro colonic models. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of recent trials on the effect of dietary grape and red wine polyphenols on the gut microbiota in humans. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Wed of Science and Scopus) to identify human intervention trials examining the effect of grape or wine polyphenols on gut microbiota. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. One study looked at changes in gut microbiota following the ingestion of de-alcoholised red wine or red wine, and six studies referred to gut microbiota as intermediates in formation of phenolic metabolites. All studies confirmed that ingested polyphenols from grape and red wine, were modulated by gut microbiota, increasing numbers of polyphenolic metabolites which were found in blood, urine, ileal fluid and faeces. Intake of polyphenols derived from grape and red wine can modulate gut microbiota and contribute to beneficial microbial ecology that can enhance human health benefits. Additionally, grape and red wine polyphenols were modulated by the gut microbiota and there is a potential for a two-way relationship between the gut microbiota and polyphenolic compounds. Nevertheless, additional research is required to fully understand the complex relationship between gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols before any health claims can be made in relation to human health
25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits. DESIGN: Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured. RESULTS: The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P
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