08 January 2019 In Diabetes

Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects. Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption. Yet, it is suggested that the physician and patient should discuss alcohol use. In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, 224 abstainers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to consume red wine, white wine or mineral water for two years. Here, we summarize our previous findings, offer new evidence concerning the differential effects of wine consumption among men and women, and further suggest that initiating moderate alcohol consumption among well-controlled persons with type 2 diabetes is apparently safe, in regard to changes in heart rate variability and carotid plaque formation.

05 December 2018 In Cancer
To investigate the association of alcohol intake with colorectal cancer risk by race/ethnicity as well as sex, lifestyle-related factors, alcoholic beverage type, and anatomical subsite, we analyzed data from 190,698 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, with 4,923 incident cases during a 16.7-year follow-up period (1993-2013). In multivariate Cox regression models, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.34) for 15.029.9 g/day of alcohol and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.45) for >/=30.0 g/day in men, and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.32) and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.43), respectively, in women, compared with nondrinkers (P for heterogeneity by sex = 0.74). An increased risk was apparent in Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites, and in individuals with body mass index <25.0 kg/m2, never use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and lower intake of dietary fiber and folate. Beer and wine, but not liquor, consumption was positively related to colorectal cancer risk. The association was stronger for rectum and left colon than right colon tumors. Our findings suggest that the positive association between alcohol and colorectal cancer varies by race/ethnicity, lifestyle factors, alcoholic beverage type, and anatomical subsite of tumors
29 October 2018 In Phenolic compounds

There is a growing body of evidence implicating the gut 'microbiome' role in overall human health. Bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are generally considered to be beneficial and are commonly used in probiotic applications, whereas increases in some genera including Clostridum, Eubacterium and Bacteroides are implicated in negative health outcomes. Dietary polyphenols are bioactive compounds that have been found to increase the numbers of beneficial bacteria and antimicrobial actions against pathogenic bacteria, however most studies have been conducted in animal models or in-vitro colonic models. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of recent trials on the effect of dietary grape and red wine polyphenols on the gut microbiota in humans. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Wed of Science and Scopus) to identify human intervention trials examining the effect of grape or wine polyphenols on gut microbiota. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. One study looked at changes in gut microbiota following the ingestion of de-alcoholised red wine or red wine, and six studies referred to gut microbiota as intermediates in formation of phenolic metabolites. All studies confirmed that ingested polyphenols from grape and red wine, were modulated by gut microbiota, increasing numbers of polyphenolic metabolites which were found in blood, urine, ileal fluid and faeces. Intake of polyphenols derived from grape and red wine can modulate gut microbiota and contribute to beneficial microbial ecology that can enhance human health benefits. Additionally, grape and red wine polyphenols were modulated by the gut microbiota and there is a potential for a two-way relationship between the gut microbiota and polyphenolic compounds. Nevertheless, additional research is required to fully understand the complex relationship between gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols before any health claims can be made in relation to human health.

29 October 2018 In Liver Disease
Understanding the role of modest alcohol consumption in patients with non-alcohol induced fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains a significant challenge, with no clear guidance on counselling regarding alcohol use. Conventionally, the strong association of alcohol excess and development of complications related to chronic liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, has led practitioners to advocate complete abstinence to those with NAFLD. New evidence published in this issue of the Red Journal challenges the historic paradigm by showing that modest, non-binge wine consumption (<70 g/week) associates with significantly lower risk of advanced hepatic fibrosis on biopsy compared with complete abstinence across a well-characterised single centre cohort of nearly 200 patients with NAFLD
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