06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that a mild to moderate drinking of wine, particularly red wine, attenuates the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk. However, the experimental basis for such health benefits is not fully understood. The cardioprotective effect of wine has been attributed to both components of wine: the alcoholic portion and, more importantly, the alcohol-free portion containing antioxidants. Wines are manufactured from grapes, which also contain a large variety of antioxidants, including resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins. Resveratrol is mainly found in the grape skin, whereas proanthocyanidins are found only in the seeds. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol and proanthocyanidin are the major compounds present in grapes and wines responsible for cardioprotection. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence that grapes, wines, and resveratrol are equally important in reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular complications. Both wines and grapes can attenuate cardiac diseases such as atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Recently, wine was also found to increase life span by inducing longevity genes. It appears that resveratrol and proanthocyanidins, especially resveratrol, present in grapes and wines play a crucial role in cardioprotective abilities of grapes and wines.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

The European Union is witnessing a rising level of concern regarding the relationship between diet and health. In response to this demand the food industry has developed so-called “functional foods”. Demand for these products is increasing in both volume and expenditure and the food industry is witnessing developments trying to expand the functional attribute to new groups of products. In this context we carried out an exploratory valuation exercise regarding the potential market for functional wine, a wine produced from grapes, in which the resveratrol content has been enhanced. A choice experiment approach has been used to assess the impact of the functional attribute on the probability of choosing a given wine among consumers of red wine in Granada, Spain, and their willingness to pay for different wine attributes. Results suggest that the functional attribute positively and significantly affects the probability of selecting a red wine and that the willingness to pay for this attribute is as important as for ageing in wine.

06 May 2014 In Osteoporosis

Background/Objectives:There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between moderate alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to describe the associations between total and beverage-specific alcohol intake and bone loss in older men and women.Subject/Methods:A total of 862 randomly selected subjects (mean age 63 years, range 51-81, 51% men) were studied at baseline and 2 years later. BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Beverage specific and total alcohol intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Falls risk was determined using the short form Physiological Profile Assessment. Incident fractures were ascertained by questionnaire.Results:Total alcohol intake in men positively predicted change in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip (beta=0.008% and 0.006% per year per gram, P<0.05) after adjustment for confounders, but there was no significant association between alcohol intake and change in BMD in women. Lumbar spine BMD at baseline was negatively associated with frequency of spirits/liquor drinking in men (beta=-0.01 g/cm(2) per category, P=0.045) and was positively associated with frequency of beer drinking (low alcohol) in women (beta=0.034 g/cm(2) per category, P=0.002). Change in lumbar spine BMD was positively associated with the frequency of red wine drinking in men (beta=0.08% per year per class, P=0.046). Neither beverage-specific nor total alcohol intake was associated with falls risk or fracture.Conclusions:Alcohol intake especially red wine might prevent bone loss in older men but not women, whereas low-alcohol beer may be protective in women and spirits/liquor may be deleterious in men.

06 May 2014 In Osteoporosis

BACKGROUND: Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the association between intake of total alcohol or individual alcoholic beverages and bone mineral density (BMD).

DESIGN: Adjusting for potential confounding factors, we examined alcohol intakes and BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine in 1182 men and in 1289 postmenopausal and 248 premenopausal women in the population-based Framingham Offspring cohort (age: 29-86 y).

RESULTS: Men were predominantly beer drinkers, and women were predominantly wine drinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, hip BMD was greater (3.4-4.5%) in men consuming 1-2 drinks/d of total alcohol or beer, whereas hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0-8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d of total alcohol or wine. Intake of >2 drinks/d of liquor in men was associated with significantly lower (3.0-5.2%) hip and spine BMD than was intake of 1-2 drinks/d of liquor in men. After adjustment for silicon intake, all intergroup differences for beer were no longer significant; differences for other alcohol sources remained significant. Power was low for premenopausal women, and the associations were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate consumption of alcohol may be beneficial to bone in men and postmenopausal women. However, in men, high liquor intakes (>2 drinks/d) were associated with significantly lower BMD. The tendency toward stronger associations between BMD and beer or wine, relative to liquor, suggests that constituents other than ethanol may contribute to bone health. Silicon appears to mediate the association of beer, but not that of wine or liquor, with BMD. Other components need further investigation.

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