06 May 2014 In Diabetes

AIMS: Lipid accumulation product (LAP), defined as a product of waist circumference and triglycerides, has recently been proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how LAP is associated with alcohol drinking.

METHODS: Subjects were 21,378 men aged 35-60 years and they were divided by alcohol intake into non-, light (/=22 and /=44 g ethanol/day) drinkers. Relationships between alcohol intake and LAP were analyzed by using multivariate analyses with adjustment for age, smoking and habitual exercise.

RESULTS: Log-transformed LAP levels in light drinkers and very heavy drinkers were significantly (P< 0.01) lower and higher, respectively, than the level in non-drinkers, and the levels were comparable in non- and heavy drinkers (non-drinkers, 1.335 +/- 0.005; light drinkers, 1.290 +/- 0.009; heavy drinkers, 1.348 +/- 0.005 and very heavy drinkers, 1.414 +/- 0.006). The inverse association of alcohol intake with LAP was more prominent in smokers and subjects without regular exercise than in non-smokers and subjects with regular exercise, respectively, while the positive association of alcohol with LAP was more prominent in non-smokers than in smokers. Odds ratio for hyperglycemia of subjects with vs. subjects without high LAP was significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00, and this association was not different among the four alcohol groups.

CONCLUSION: There is a J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and LAP, which is confounded by smoking and habitual exercise.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Relationships between alcohol consumption and risks for metabolic syndrome in general populations are very controversial. It is unknown whether age influences the relationship between alcohol intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether age influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome.

METHODS: Men aged >/=35 and /=65 years (older group), matched for alcohol intake and smoking history, were divided into four subgroups by alcohol intake [non-, light (/=22 and /=44 g ethanol/day) drinkers]. Odds ratios (ORs) versus nondrinkers for each risk factor and metabolic syndrome were compared between the younger and older groups.

RESULTS: Both in the younger and older groups, ORs for high blood pressure and low HDL cholesterol were significantly high and low, respectively, in all drinker groups. In younger subjects, the OR for large waist circumference was significantly low in light drinkers, and the OR for high hemoglobin A(1c) was significantly low in light and heavy drinkers, while these associations were not found in older subjects. The OR for metabolic syndrome was significantly low in light and heavy drinkers in the younger subjects but was not significant in any drinker groups in older subjects.

CONCLUSION: Age influences the relationships between alcohol consumption and atherosclerotic risk factors, and there is a significant association between alcohol intake and a lower risk for metabolic syndrome in young men but not in elderly men.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women.

METHODS: Japanese female subjects (n=11,187) were divided into non-, light ( or = 22 ethanol/day) drinkers, and Japanese male subjects (n=19,398) were divided into non-, light ( or = 22 and or = 44 g ethanol/day) drinkers. The mean level of each variable and the prevalence of each risk factor and metabolic syndrome were compared among the groups.

RESULTS: In men and women, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol tended to be higher, and hemoglobin A1c tended to be lower with increased alcohol intake. Waist circumference showed U- and V-shaped relationships, and log-converted triglyceride showed J- and V-shaped relationships with alcohol intake in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lowest in light drinkers in men and women and was significantly higher in very heavy drinkers than in non-drinkers in men. In men, the odds ratio vs. non-drinkers for metabolic syndrome was significantly low in light drinkers, while the odds ratio was significantly high in very heavy drinkers. In women, a significantly low odds ratio vs. non-drinkers for metabolic syndrome was obtained in light drinkers.

CONCLUSION: Light drinking is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women, while very heavy drinking is thought to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

The aim of this study was to determine how alcohol consumption influences metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension. The subjects were 3938 male workers being treated with anti-hypertensive drugs and they were divided into four groups by average ethanol intake [non-, light (/=22 and /=44 g/day) drinkers]. The relationships of alcohol intake with atherosclerotic risk factors and metabolic syndrome were investigated. Waist circumference and hemoglobin A1c were significantly smaller and lower, respectively, in light, moderate, and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Systolic blood pressure and log-converted triglyceride were significantly higher in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in all of the drinker groups than in nondrinkers and tended to be higher as alcohol intake increased. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in light, moderate, and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Age- and smoking history-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) vs. nondrinkers for metabolic syndrome were significantly low in light drinkers (OR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.89), moderate drinkers (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.75) and heavy drinkers (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.82). The results suggest that alcohol drinking is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension.

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