12 March 2015 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease.

METHODS: We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference.

RESULTS: For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI >/=25 kg/m2) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

28 July 2014 In Diabetes

INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components.

METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI<25, normal weight; BMI 25-30, overweight; BMI>/=30 kg/m2, obese). MetS was defined according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Within each BMI class and smoking subgroup (non-smoker, former smoker, /=20 g tobacco/day), the cross-sectional association between alcohol and individual MetS components was tested using regression analysis.

RESULTS: Prevalence of MetS varied greatly between the different smoking-alcohol subgroups (1.7-71.1%). HDL cholesterol levels in all alcohol drinkers were higher than in non-drinkers (0.02 to 0.29 mmol/L, P values<0.001). HDL cholesterol levels were lower when they were also a former or current smoker (/=20 g tobacco/day). Consumption of 1 drink/day) and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks.

CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

30 June 2014 In Diabetes

AIMS: Examine associations between self-reported alcohol consumption patterns and metabolic syndrome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample (N=7432) included adult (>/=20 years) participants in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

RESULTS: Above moderate alcohol consumption (AMAC) was negatively associated with waist circumference among those in the 20-29, 40-49, and 70-79 age groups (beta=-6.21, beta=-8.34, and beta=-6.60, respectively) and moderate alcohol consumption (MAC) was negatively associated with waist circumference among those in the 30-39, 40-49, and 70-79 age groups (beta=-4.60, beta=-5.69, and beta=-2.88, respectively). AMAC was negatively associated with triglycerides among those in the 70-79 and 80+ age groups (beta=-23.62 and beta=-34.18, respectively) and positively associated with HDL-C levels in all groups (beta range 8.96-18.25). MAC was positively associated with HDL-C in the age groups spanning 20-69 years (beta range 3.05-5.34) and those over 80 (beta=5.26). AMAC and MAC were negatively associated with fasting glucose levels in the 20-29 and 70-79 age groups (beta=-3.38 and -15.61, respectively). MAC was negatively associated with fasting glucose levels among those 70-79 and those over 80 years of age (beta=-7.06 and beta=-5.00, respectively).

CONCLUSION: MAC and AMAC may favorably impact metabolic health.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF(2alpha)) in healthy men.

METHODS: Nineteen healthy men with an increased waist circumference (>/=94 cm) and a body mass index above 25 kg/m(2) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover design trial. They daily consumed 450 ml of red wine (four drinks; 41.4 g alcohol) or 450 ml of de-alcoholized red wine during dinner for 4 weeks each. On the last day of each treatment period, blood was collected before and 1 h after a standardized dinner with red wine or de-alcoholized red wine and also 24-h urine was collected.

RESULTS: Absolute TEAC levels were higher 1 h after dinner with red wine compared with dinner with de-alcoholized red wine (1.3 versus 1.1 mmol Trolox equivalents/l; P = 0.03). Consumption of dinner together with de-alcoholized red wine acutely stimulated NF-kappaB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (0.4-0.7 HeLa equivalents/2.5 mug protein; P = 0.006), whereas this increase was completely suppressed when the dinner was combined with red wine. A chronic increase in urinary 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) after 4 weeks of red wine consumption compared with de-alcoholized red wine consumption (157 pg/mg creatinine and 141 pg/mg creatinine, respectively, P = 0.006) was also observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of a moderate dose of red wine can acutely increase plasma TEAC and suppress NF-kappaB activation induced by a meal. Controversially, 4 weeks of red wine consumption compared with de-alcoholized red wine consumption increases the oxidative lipid damage marker 8-iso-PGF(2alpha).

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