23 November 2022 In Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: This hypothesis-testing study evaluated the relationship between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) diagnoses within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD).

METHODS: De-identified eligibility and claim healthcare records prospectively generated from the 1990-2012 Florida Medicaid system were analyzed using SAS software. There were 89,766 children continuously eligible with >/=10 outpatient office visits during the 120 month period following birth in the cohort examined. A total of 321 children were diagnosed with FAS. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 922), tics (n = 551), attention deficit disorder/attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) (n = 20,260), mental retardation (MR) (n = 915), and specific delays in development (SDD) (n = 24,630) incidence rates were examined using frequency risk ratio (RR) and logistic regression models.

RESULTS: The incidence rate of tics (RR = 5.68), ADD/ADHD (RR = 2.30), MR (RR = 7.83), SDD (RR = 2.88), and ASD (RR = 6.74) were significantly increased among FAS diagnosed children as compared to undiagnosed children. Adjusted (for gender, race, residency, and date of birth) odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased for tics (OR = 4.87), ADD/ADHD (OR = 3.40), MR (OR = 7.91), SDD (OR = 9.56), and ASD (OR = 6.87) when comparing the FAS diagnosed children to undiagnosed children.

CONCLUSION: Tens of thousands of American children with lifetime costs in the billions of US dollars were estimated to be impacted by FAS-associated NDs. These impacts are particularly tragic because FAS is dependent upon lifestyle.

15 June 2022 In Pregnant Women

Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of developmental disorders, including impaired fetal growth and development of multiple organ systems. These disorders are grouped under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Adequate nutrition and a conducive intrauterine environment are essential for healthy fetal development. Nutrient deficiencies resulting from inadequate maternal nutrient ingestion may be compounded by alcohol-induced altered nutrient metabolism, placental clearance, and malabsorption. Alcohol-induced alteration of the intrauterine environment is the main source of developmental deficits and nutritional insufficiencies can worsen the effects on fetal development. In this review, we discuss studies examining the collective and interactive effects of nutrition (specifically iron, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, zinc, folate, vitamin B12, choline, and amino acids) relative to gestational alcohol consumption and its effects on fetal growth and development. We also summarize scientific reports that tested potential benefits of micronutrient supplementation in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and in humans. In summary, the deleterious effects of alcohol exposure in relation to nutrient homeostasis further validate that avoidance of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the most effective way to mitigate the teratogenic effects of alcohol.

26 May 2021 In Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with major birth defects and developmental disabilities. Questionnaires concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy underestimate alcohol use while the use of a reliable and objective biomarker for alcohol consumption enables more accurate screening. Phosphatidylethanol can detect low levels of alcohol consumption in the previous two weeks. In this study we aimed to biochemically assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption during early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol in blood and compare this with self-reported alcohol consumption.

METHODS: To evaluate biochemically assessed prevalence of alcohol consumption during early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol levels, we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single center study in the largest tertiary hospital of the Netherlands. All adult pregnant women who were under the care of the obstetric department of the Erasmus MC and who underwent routine blood testing at a gestational age of less than 15 weeks were eligible. No specified informed consent was needed.

RESULTS: The study was conducted between September 2016 and October 2017. In total, we received 1,002 residual samples of 992 women. After applying in- and exclusion criteria we analyzed 684 samples. Mean gestational age of all included women was 10.3 weeks (SD 1.9). Of these women, 36 (5.3 %) tested positive for phosphatidylethanol, indicating alcohol consumption in the previous two weeks. Of women with a positive phosphatidylethanol test, 89 % (n = 32) did not express alcohol consumption to their obstetric care provider.

CONCLUSIONS: One in nineteen women consumed alcohol during early pregnancy with a high percentage not reporting this use to their obstetric care provider. Questioning alcohol consumption by an obstetric care provider did not successfully identify (hazardous) alcohol consumption. Routine screening with phosphatidylethanol in maternal blood can be of added value to identify women who consume alcohol during pregnancy.

24 March 2021 In Pregnant Women
Alcohol consumption remains prevalent among pregnant and nursing mothers despite the well-documented adverse effects this may have on the offspring. Moderate-to-high levels of alcohol consumption in pregnancy result in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) disorders, with brain defects being chief among the abnormalities. Recent findings indicate that while light-to-moderate levels may not cause FAS, it may contribute to epigenetic changes that make the offspring prone to adverse health outcomes including metabolic disorders and an increased propensity in the adolescent-onset of drinking alcohol. On the one hand, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes epigenetic changes that affect lipid and glucose transcript regulating genes resulting in metabolic abnormalities. On the other hand, it can program offspring for increased alcohol intake, enhance its palatability, and increase acceptance of alcohol's flavor through associative learning, making alcohol a plausible second hit for the development of alcohol-induced liver disease. Adolescent drinking results in alcohol dependence and abuse in adulthood. Adolescent drinking results in alcohol dependence and abuse in adulthood. Alterations on the opioid system, particularly, the mu-opioid system, has been implicated in the mechanism that induces increased alcohol consumption and acceptance. This review proposes a mechanism that links PAE to the development of alcoholism and eventually to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which results from prolonged alcohol consumption. While PAE may not lead to ALD development in childhood, there are chances that it may lead to ALD in adulthood.
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