22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

(Poly)phenols have anti-diabetic properties that are mediated through the regulation of the main biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR)), as well as the modulation of other metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. A wide range of human and pre-clinical studies supports these effects for different plant products containing mixed (poly)phenols (e.g., berries, cocoa, tea) and for some single compounds (e.g., resveratrol). We went through some of the latest human intervention trials and pre-clinical studies looking at (poly)phenols against T2DM to update the current evidence and to examine the progress in this field to achieve consistent proof of the anti-diabetic benefits of these compounds. Overall, the reported effects remain small and highly variable, and the accumulated data are still limited and contradictory, as shown by recent meta-analyses. We found newly published studies with better experimental strategies, but there were also examples of studies that still need to be improved. Herein, we highlight some of the main aspects that still need to be considered in future studies and reinforce the messages that need to be taken on board to achieve consistent evidence of the anti-diabetic effects of (poly)phenols.

26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: This paper explores the effects of moderate red wine consumption on the clinical status and symptomatology of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), including the study of the oral and intestinal microbiome.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A case control intervention study in UC patients is designed. Intervention patients (n = 5) consume red wine (250 mL day(-1) ) for 4 weeks whereas control patients (n = 5) do not. Moderate wine consumption significantly (p < 0.05) improves some clinical parameters related to serum iron, and alleviates intestinal symptoms as evaluated by the IBDQ-32 questionnaire. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicate a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in bacterial alpha diversity after wine intervention in both saliva and fecal microbiota. Additional comparison of taxonomic data between UC patients (n = 10) and healthy subjects (n = 8) confirm intestinal dysbiosis for the UC patients. Finally, analysis of fecal metabolites (i.e., phenolic acids and SCFAs) indicates a non-significant increase (p > 0.05) for the UC patients that consumed wine.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and regular red wine intake seems to improve the clinical status and symptoms of UC patients in the active phase of the disease. However, studies with a greater sample size are required to achieve conclusive results.

26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

Moderate wine consumption is often associated with healthy lifestyle habits. The role of wine as a healthy drink is mainly due to its bioactive compounds, which differ according to various viticultural and enological factors. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in bioactive compounds of white and red autochthonous Croatian wines, differing in terms of the grape variety and production technology.

Our further aim was to explore the effect of their moderate consumption (200 mL per day) over the course of six weeks on some aspects of health in sixty-six healthy individuals. Participants were divided into eight groups depending on the wines consumed, while one group formed a non-consuming control group. Medical examination and laboratory tests were performed before the start and at the end of the consumption period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations decreased.

Additionally, an increase in HDL concentrations, and serotonin and dopamine levels, was observed. ALT, ALP, and GGT levels did not significantly increase in consumer groups, although alcohol concentration was relatively high in all the wines. Such results support the beneficial effects of wine-derived bioactive compounds on some health aspects resulting from moderate white and red wine consumption.

26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that red wine has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this work if resveratrol content in red wine increases SHBG levels is explored.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A pilot study aims at testing the effect of drinking for 14 days two types of red wine with different resveratrol content is conducted in 26 healthy volunteers. SHBG levels and several biochemical parameters are measured at the beginning and the end of every period. Results show that consumption of both wines does not change body mass index or biochemical markers of liver injury. The low resveratrol wine does not modify the lipid profile or SHBG levels. By contrast, red wine with high resveratrol content significantly reduces total cholesterol in both men and women. Finally, red wine with high resveratrol content increases circulating SHBG in women but not in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Red wine rich in resveratrol reduces total cholesterol in men and women and increases SHBG only in women. Further research aims at investigating the potential SHBG role enhancement mediated by resveratrol regarding cardiovascular protection that presents women in comparison with men seems warranted.

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