28 March 2019 In Phenolic compounds

Wine has been popular worldwide for many centuries and currently remains an important component of our diet. Scientific interest in wine and its health effects has grown considerably since the 1990s with the emergence of the "French Paradox" concept, correlating moderate wine consumption, a characteristic of the Mediterranean diet, and low incidence of coronary heart diseases. Since then, the positive effects on health, health promotion, disease prevention, and disease prognosis of moderate wine consumption, in particular red wine, have been attributed to its polyphenolic compounds such as resveratrol, quercetin, and other flavonoids acting as antioxidants. Several epidemiological, in vivo and in vitro, studies have reported that moderate red wine or red wine polyphenolic extract consumption may be active in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, degenerative pathologies, and cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current findings about the effects of red wine polyphenols on cancer and to discuss how the polyphenolic composition of red wine may influence its chemopreventive properties.

28 March 2019 In Phenolic compounds

Wine, a widely consumed beverage, comprises several biophenols that promote health. Flavonoids, majorly present in red wine, have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities. Regular consumption of red wine (100 mL/day) is estimated to provide an average of 88 mg of flavonoids, whereas recent epidemiological studies indicate that wine is one of the major sources of flavonoid intake amongst wine lovers in European countries (providing an average intake of 291(-)374 mg/day of flavonoids). In addition to being antioxidants, in vitro studies suggest that flavonoids also have anti-allergic activities that inhibit IgE synthesis, activation of mast cells and basophils or other inflammatory cells, and production of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. Furthermore, they affect the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into effector T cell subsets. Moreover, several studies have reported the benefits of flavonoids in allergic models such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, and food allergy; however, evidence in humans is limited to allergic rhinitis and respiratory allergy. Although further evaluation is required, it is expected that an appropriate intake of flavonoids may be beneficial in preventing, and eventually managing, allergic diseases.

29 October 2018 In Phenolic compounds

There is a growing body of evidence implicating the gut 'microbiome' role in overall human health. Bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are generally considered to be beneficial and are commonly used in probiotic applications, whereas increases in some genera including Clostridum, Eubacterium and Bacteroides are implicated in negative health outcomes. Dietary polyphenols are bioactive compounds that have been found to increase the numbers of beneficial bacteria and antimicrobial actions against pathogenic bacteria, however most studies have been conducted in animal models or in-vitro colonic models. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of recent trials on the effect of dietary grape and red wine polyphenols on the gut microbiota in humans. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Wed of Science and Scopus) to identify human intervention trials examining the effect of grape or wine polyphenols on gut microbiota. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. One study looked at changes in gut microbiota following the ingestion of de-alcoholised red wine or red wine, and six studies referred to gut microbiota as intermediates in formation of phenolic metabolites. All studies confirmed that ingested polyphenols from grape and red wine, were modulated by gut microbiota, increasing numbers of polyphenolic metabolites which were found in blood, urine, ileal fluid and faeces. Intake of polyphenols derived from grape and red wine can modulate gut microbiota and contribute to beneficial microbial ecology that can enhance human health benefits. Additionally, grape and red wine polyphenols were modulated by the gut microbiota and there is a potential for a two-way relationship between the gut microbiota and polyphenolic compounds. Nevertheless, additional research is required to fully understand the complex relationship between gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols before any health claims can be made in relation to human health.

03 May 2018 In Phenolic compounds
Resveratrol, (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a non-flavonoid polyphenol stilbene synthesized by plants when damaged by infectious diseases or ionizing radiation. Although present in more than seventy plant species, grapes and wine are the major dietary contributors of resveratrol, responsible for 98% of the daily intake. In 1992, Renaud and De Lorgeril first linked wine polyphenols, including resveratrol, to the potential health benefits ascribed to regular and moderate wine consumption (the so called "French Paradox"). Since then, resveratrol has received increasing scientific interest, leading to research on its biological actions, and to a large number of published papers, which have been collected and discussed in this review. The relatively low amounts of resveratrol measured in wine following moderate consumption, however, may be insufficient to mitigate biological damage, such as that due to oxidative stress. On this basis, the authors also highlight the importance of viticulture and the winemaking process to enhance resveratrol concentrations in wine in order to bolster potential health benefits
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