23 November 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a discretionary, energy dense, dietary component. Compared to non-drinkers, people who consume alcohol report higher total energy intake and may be at increased risk of weight gain, overweight, and obesity, which are key preventable risk factors for illness. However, accurate consumer knowledge of the energy content in alcohol is low. To inform future behaviour change interventions among drinkers, this study investigated individual characteristics associated with changing alcohol consumption due to energy-related concerns.

METHODS: An online survey was undertaken with 801 Australian adult drinkers (18-59 years, 50.2% female), i.e. who consumed alcohol at least monthly. In addition to demographic and health-related characteristics, participants reported past-year alcohol consumption, past-year reductions in alcohol consumption, frequency of harm minimisation strategy use (when consuming alcohol), and frequency of changing alcohol consumption behaviours because of energy-related concerns.

RESULTS: When prompted, 62.5% of participants reported changing alcohol consumption for energy-related reasons at least 'sometimes'. Women, those aged 30-44 years, metropolitan residents, those with household income $80,001-120,000, and risky/more frequent drinkers had increased odds of changing consumption because of energy-related concerns, and unemployed respondents had reduced odds.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that some sociodemographic groups are changing alcohol consumption for energy-related reasons, but others are not, representing an underutilised opportunity for health promotion communication. Further research should investigate whether messaging to increase awareness of alcohol energy content, including through systems-based policy actions such as nutritional/energy product labelling, would motivate reduced consumption across a broader range of drinkers.

23 November 2022 In General Health

Supply-side interventions to reduce alcohol consumption are often justified by reference to the total consumption model. According to this theory, which is dominant in public health academia, reducing per capita alcohol consumption across society is a sufficient and necessary condition to reduce alcohol-related mortality. This article presents new evidence showing that there is no single distribution of alcohol consumption and that trends in per capita consumption and alcohol-related mortality often move in opposite directions. Economic interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of heavy drinking by reducing per capita alcohol consumption cannot therefore be assumed to be effective.

27 October 2022 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database on May 23, 2021 (registration number: CRD42021256649), and updated on August 4, 2022. Two researchers performed a literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases for articles published before July 15, 2022 independently. Studies investigating the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and IVF/ICSI outcomes were included, and studies reporting the consumption amount were analyzed using a one-stage robust error meta-regression-based method to explore potential dose-response relationships. Funnel plot was used to assess publication bias if more than 10 studies were included.

RESULTS: Twelve studies on caffeine consumption and 14 studies on alcohol consumption were included in the systematic review, of which seven and nine were eligible for the meta-analysis. These studies included 26 922 women and/or their spouses who underwent IVF/ICSI treatment. Women's and men's caffeine consumption was not significantly associated with the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.12; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.14; respectively) and the live birth rate (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08; OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.86-1.12; respectively) of IVF/ICSI. Maternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.01). Paternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with partner's live birth after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99). Compared with abstainers, the chance of achieving a pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment decreased by 7% for women who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), and the chance of partners achieving a live birth decreased by 9% for men who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94).

CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between caffeine consumption and pregnancy or live birth rate of IVF/ICSI. Women's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased pregnancy rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g. Men's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased live birth rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g.

27 October 2022 In General Health

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is interrelated to stroke, heart attack, and heart failure. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been closely associated with reduced CVD morbidity and mortality, but research is not well explored for this relationship in individuals with diabetes (who experience greater CVD morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes). The aim of this review was to explore the literature related to the MedDiet and atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes. In total, 570 articles were identified, and 36 articles were included. The articles were published between 2011 and 2021. Platforms used for the search were PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest. Our literature search included clinical and observational studies. Clinical studies revealed the MedDiet was associated with improved biomarkers, plaque, and anthropometric measurements that are associated with atherosclerosis and CVD. Observational studies identified associations between the MedDiet and lower presence of atherosclerosis, improved vascular aging, and increased endothelial progenitor cells. However, most of the studies took place in Mediterranean countries. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects the MedDiet on atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors in diverse populations to include individuals with and without diabetes.

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