22 March 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by body composition alterations, including increased visceral adiposity accumulation and bone loss. Alcohol consumption may partially drive these alterations, but findings are mixed. This study primarily aimed to investigate whether different alcohol types (beer/cider, red wine, white wine/Champagne, spirits) differentially associated with body composition.

METHODS: The longitudinal UK Biobank study leveraged 1869 White participants (40–80 years; 59% male). Participants self-reported demographic, alcohol/dietary consumption, and lifestyle factors using a touchscreen questionnaire. Anthropometrics and serum for proteomics were collected. Body composition was obtained via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Structural equation modeling was used to probe direct/indirect associations between alcohol types, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and body composition.

RESULTS: Greater beer/spirit consumptions were associated with greater visceral adiposity (β = 0.069, p < 0.001 and β = 0.014, p < 0.001, respectively), which was driven by dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In contrast, drinking more red wine was associated with less visceral adipose mass (β = −0.023, p < 0.001), which was driven by reduced inflammation and elevated high-density lipoproteins. White wine consumption predicted greater bone density (β = 0.051, p < 0.005).

DISCUSSION: Beer/spirits may partially contribute to the “empty calorie” hypothesis related to adipogenesis, while red wine may help protect against adipogenesis due to anti-inflammatory/eulipidemic effects. Furthermore, white wine may benefit bone health in older White adults.

22 March 2022 In General Health

Findings from earlier studies on the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of overweight/obesity were inconsistent. We summarized cohort studies investigating the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of overweight and/or obesity and weight change in adults. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted up to May 2021.

Prospective cohorts that examined the Mediterranean diet adherence in adults as the exposure, and overweight and/or obesity or weight change as the outcomes, and reported RRs or beta coefficients and 95% CIs as the effect sizes were included. Seven prospective cohort studies were included of which 6 studies (with 244,678 adult participants) reported the risk of overweight and/or obesity, and 4 cohorts (with 436,617 participants) reported the weight change (3 cohorts reported both overweight and/or obesity risk and weight change).

Combining 15 effect sizes from 6 cohorts revealed that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with a 9% decreased risk of overweight and/or obesity (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.94; I2 = 44.7%; PQ-test = 0.031). This association was significant in the case of studies investigating combined overweight and obesity (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; I2 = 29.4%; PQ-test = 0.166), but not for studies that reported on obesity (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.10, I2 = 50.6%, PQ-test = 0.132). Linear dose-response analysis of 6 studies showed a 2% decreased risk of overweight and/or obesity for 1 additional Mediterranean diet score (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99). Each unit increase in the Mediterranean diet score was associated with 0.04 kg less weight gain over 5 y (-0.04 kg; 95% CI: -0.07, -0.02 kg; 13 effect sizes from 4 cohorts).

In conclusion, Mediterranean diet adherence is inversely associated with risk of overweight and/or obesity as well as 5-y weight gain and thus has practical importance for public health.

22 March 2022 In General Health

We aimed to investigate whether alcohol intake contributes to lung function levels and which beverage type may have an effect. We investigated 3742 participants from the Wuhai-Zhuhai Cohort and 12,526 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort, and they were followed up for 3 and 5 years, respectively.

Information on the type and daily amount of alcohol intake was collected through face-to-face interviews. Lung function was measured by trained physicians using electronic spirometers. Compared with nondrinkers, moderate alcohol intake was significantly associated with a 70.03 and 74.92 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC, respectively (P < 0.05), after adjusting for covariates.

With regard to beverage type, red wine was associated with a 105.31 and 98.91 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC, respectively (P < 0.05). Moderate alcohol intake was also associated with a 53.37 and 66.17 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC for liquor, respectively, and a 106.90 and 103.62 mL increase for red wine (all Ps < 0.05). In the longitudinal analyses, moderate alcohol intake and red wine were associated with a 67.77 and 103.77 mL increase in FVC, respectively (P < 0.05).

Moderate alcohol intake is associated with increased lung function, especially for red wine. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism.

23 February 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption potentially influences psychological well-being in beneficial and harmful ways, but prospective studies on the association show mixed results. Our main purpose was to examine prospective associations between alcohol consumption and psychological well-being in middle-aged men and women.

METHODS: The study sample included 4148 middle-aged individuals (80% men) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank who reported their alcohol consumption (average weekly consumption and frequency of binge drinking) at baseline in 2004 or 2006 and reported their psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and vitality) at follow-up in 2009-2011. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, social relations, and morbidity.

RESULTS: For satisfaction with life at follow-up, lower scores were observed in men and women who were alcohol abstinent at baseline as well as in men with heavy alcohol consumption compared with moderate alcohol consumption at baseline. Moreover, men with weekly binge drinking at baseline had lower satisfaction with life scores at follow-up than men with moderate frequency of binge drinking (1-3 times/month). In relation to vitality at follow-up, alcohol abstinence at baseline in men and women and heavy alcohol consumption at baseline in men were associated with lower scores compared with moderate alcohol consumption (yet in men these findings were not robust to adjustment for covariates).

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol abstinence seems to be prospectively associated with adverse psychological well-being (vitality and life satisfaction) in men and women, while heavy alcohol consumption seems to be prospectively associated with adverse satisfaction with life in men. Finally, a prospective association between weekly binge drinking and lower life satisfaction was observed in men.

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