26 November 2019 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been reported to be associated with lower cancer risk. However, while previous studies explored major single components of the MD, only 1 previous study has investigated adherence to the MD in relation to melanoma risk.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between adherence to the MD and the risk of skin cancer, including melanomas, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).

DESIGN: Etude Epidemiologique aupres de femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) is a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women aged 40-65 y in 1990. Dietary data were collected via a validated food questionnaire in 1993. Adherence to the MD was assessed using a 9-unit dietary score that incorporates intakes of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereal products, olive oil, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for age and main known skin cancer risk factors.

RESULTS: From 1993 to 2008, a total of 2003 skin cancer cases were ascertained among 67,332 women, including 404 melanomas, 1367 BCCs, and 232 SCCs. Score of adherence to the MD was associated with lower risk of skin cancer (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.93 for high compared with low score, Ptrend = 0.001). MD score was also inversely and linearly associated with risks of melanoma (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.96; Ptrend = 0.02) and BCC (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.90; Ptrend = 0.0006) but not SCC (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55; Ptrend = 0.68), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Pheterogeneity = 0.23).

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that adherence to the MD is associated with a lower skin cancer risk in women, particularly melanoma and BCC. If confirmed in future research, these findings may have important implications in skin cancer prevention.

26 November 2019 In General Health

Ancient Greece was the cradle of the Mediterranean food tradition, characterized by the Mediterranean "eternal trinity" wheat - olive oil - wine, the very essence of the country's traditional agricultural and dietary regime, enriched by a culture of sharing and commensality. This food model, subsequently adopted and spread by the Romans, was rediscovered at the end of the Second World War by two American researchers, Leland Allbaugh and Ancel Keys. With the famous Seven Countries Study, Keys demonstrated for the first time that populations practicing a Mediterranean diet - such as the Greeks and southern Italians - showed low mortality rates from ischemic heart disease compared to the peoples of Northern Europe and North America. Since then, numerous subsequent epidemiological studies and randomized clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet both in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This review will focus on the origins of the Mediterranean diet from its roots and its relationship to cardiovascular disease, with a brief overview of the nutritional mechanisms that influence atherosclerosis.

26 November 2019 In General Health

The prevention of bone mass loss and related complications associated with osteoporosis is a significant public health issue. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is favorably associated with bone health, a potentially modifiable risk factor. The objective of this research was to determine MD adherence in a sample of women with and without osteoporosis. In this observational case-control study of 139 women (64 women with and 75 without osteoporosis) conducted in a primary-care health center in Girona (Spain), MD adherence, lifestyle, physical exercise, tobacco and alcohol consumption, pathological antecedents, and FRAX index scores were analyzed. Logistic multilinear regression modeling to explore the relationship between the MD and bone fracture risk indicated that better MD adherence was associated with a lower bone risk fracture. Non-pharmacological preventive strategies to reduce bone fracture risk were also reviewed to explore the role of lifestyle and diet in bone mass maintenance and bone fracture prevention.

26 November 2019 In General Health

There is no available abstract for this article.

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