25 August 2020 In General Health
INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle-related habits have a strong influence on morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study investigates the association between a multidimensional healthy lifestyle score and all-cause mortality risk, including in the score some less-studied lifestyle-related factors. METHODS: Participants (n=20,094) of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort were followed up from 1999 to 2018. The analysis was conducted in 2019. A 10-point healthy lifestyle score previously associated with a lower risk of major cardiovascular events was applied, assigning 1 point to each of the following items: never smoking, moderate-to-high physical activity, moderate-to-high Mediterranean diet adherence, healthy BMI, moderate alcohol consumption, avoidance of binge drinking, low TV exposure, short afternoon nap, time spent with friends, and working >/=40 hours per week. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.8 years, 407 deaths were documented. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, the highest category of adherence to the score (7-10 points) showed a 60% lower risk of all-cause mortality than the lowest category (0-3 points) (hazard ratio=0.40, 95% CI=0.27, 0.60, p
25 August 2020 In General Health
We investigated the relation between alcohol drinking and healthy ageing by means of a validated health status metric, using individual data from the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project. For the purposes of this study, the ATHLOS harmonised dataset, which includes information from individuals aged 65+ in 38 countries, was analysed (n = 135,440). Alcohol drinking was reflected by means of three harmonised variables: alcohol drinking frequency, current and past alcohol drinker. A set of 41 self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a specific health metric. In the harmonised dataset, the prevalence of current drinking was 47.5% while of past drinking was 26.5%. In the pooled sample, current alcohol drinking was positively associated with better health status among older adults ((b-coef (95% CI): 1.32(0.45 to 2.19)) and past alcohol drinking was inversely related (b-coef (95% CI): -0.83 (-1.51 to -0.16)) with health status. Often alcohol consumption appeared to be beneficial only for females in all super-regions except Africa, both age group categories (65-80 years old and 80+), both age group categories, as well as among all the financial status categories (all p
25 August 2020 In General Health
BACKGROUND: Diet quality may be an important area of focus for promoting cognitive health; however, the association between diet quality and cognitive function among Hispanics/Latinos remains largely unexamined. We hypothesized that a healthier diet quality will be associated with better cognitive function in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine associations between the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), a measure of diet quality, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Visit 1 (2008-2011) were used (n = 8461; ages 45-74 y). Cognitive function was assessed with tests of verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed; a global cognition score was derived by summing the z scores of individual tests. Dietary intake was assessed via two 24-h recalls. Total AHEI-2010 score was categorized into quintiles (higher quintiles indicating healthier diet). Linear regression models were used to examine associations between AHEI-2010 quintiles and cognitive function adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, daily energy intake, type 2 diabetes, smoking, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quintile, in the second to fourth AHEI-2010 quintiles, global cognition scores were significantly higher by 0.28, 0.52, and 0.48 units (P-trend = 0.042). In the second to fifth AHEI-2010 quintiles, verbal learning scores were significantly higher by 0.60, 0.62, 0.92, and 0.88 units, and verbal memory scores were higher by 0.33, 0.40, 0.52, and 0.46 units (P-trend = 0.020 and 0.007, respectively). No associations were observed between the AHEI-2010 and verbal fluency or processing speed (P-trend = 0.49 and 0.84, respectively). Among AHEI-2010 components, adequate consumption of vegetables, alcohol, and whole fruits were each associated with better cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: An overall healthier diet quality was associated with better global cognition, verbal learning, and verbal memory in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.
25 August 2020 In General Health
Excessive consumption of energy-dense food increases the risk of obesity, which in turn increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and most non-smoking-related cancers. Health warning labels (HWLs) that communicate the adverse health consequences of excess energy consumption could reduce intake of energy-dense foods. The aim of the current study was to estimate the impact on selection of energy-dense snacks of (a) image-and-text HWLs (b) text-only HWLs and (c) calorie information. In a between-subjects, 3 (HWL: image-and-text, text-only, no label) x 2 (calorie information: present, absent), factorial experimental design, participants (N = 4134) were randomised to view a selection of energy-dense and non-energy-dense snacks with one of five label types or no label. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack in a hypothetical vending machine task. The proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack was reduced in all label groups, relative to the no label group (no label: 59%; calories only: 54%; text-only HWL: 48%; text-only HWL with calories: 44%; image-and-text HWL: 37%; image-and-text HWL with calories: 38%). Compared to the no label group, participants were least likely to select an energy-dense snack in the image-and-text HWL group (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.40, 0.54, p
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