27 September 2019 In General Health

There is no abstract available for this article.

27 September 2019 In General Health

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine outstanding issues in the relationship of alcohol to hypertension. These include whether the increase in BP with alcohol is causally related, the nature of the relationship in women, the contribution of alcohol-related increases in BP to cardiovascular disease and the aetiology of alcohol-related hypertension.

RECENT FINDINGS: Intervention studies and Mendelian randomisation analyses confirm the alcohol-BP relationship is causal. The concept that low-level alcohol intake reduces BP in women is increasingly unsustainable. Alcohol-related hypertension is in the causal pathway between alcohol use and increased risk for several cardiovascular outcomes. The aetiology of alcohol-related hypertension is multifactorial with recent data highlighting the effects of alcohol on the vasoconstrictor 20-HETE and oxidative stress. The high prevalence of both alcohol use and hypertension mandates a careful alcohol history in every patient with elevated BP. Early intervention for excessive alcohol use offers the promise of lower levels of BP and reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

27 September 2019 In General Health

AIMS: Alcohol is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality, especially within the European region. Differences in per capita consumption and drinking patterns are possible reasons for regional differences and diverging trends in alcohol-related health outcomes.

METHODS: Twenty-nine countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region were evaluated for trends and predictions in alcohol-related deaths within the last four decades using data available from the WHO Health for All database.

RESULTS: Between 1979 and 2015, age-standardised death rates due to selected alcohol-related causes decreased significantly for both sexes in all assessed countries of the WHO European region, but regional differences are still pronounced. Assuming a similar trend in the future, the model predicted a further decrease until the year 2030.

CONCLUSION: Even though alcohol-related mortality may have decreased within the last decades, the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence remain a considerable burden of disease within Europe.

27 September 2019 In General Health

Alcohol consumption is a significant public health issue worldwide. The rat model and epidemiological studies have both reported conflicting results about the effects of alcohol on the kidneys. We aimed to explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health Insurance research database, and the National Deaths Dataset were used. Standardized in-person interviews were executed in 2001, 2005, and 2009 to obtain the demographic characteristics of study population. The participants were followed up until 2013. The primary outcome was new-onset chronic kidney disease. We analyzed 45,200 adults older than 18 years (50.8% men and 49.2% women), and the overall mean (SD) age was 42.73 (16.64) years. During the 8.5 (3.5) years of follow-up, new-onset chronic kidney disease was recognized in 1535 (5.5%), 292 (2.7%), and 317 (4.9%) non-drinking, social-drinking, and regular-drinking participants, respectively. The participants who were social and regular drinkers had a significantly decreased risk of chronic kidney disease incidence (social drinking: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.97; p = 0.018; regular-drinking: AHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98; p = 0.024), with baseline demographics and comorbidities adjusted. In conclusion, social and regular drinkers had decreased risk of chronic kidney disease when compared with non-drinkers.

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