12 August 2019 In General Health

AIMS: To review the effectiveness of workplace interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among employees.

METHODS: Systematic search of science databases from inception till May 2018 for trials where an intervention was tested against a control and data presented as amount of alcohol consumed per week. Quality of trials was assessed by Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed with random-effects model and pooled mean difference (MD) was reported with 95% confidence interval. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test.

RESULTS: Seven trials with 1291 participants could be included. No outcome assessments were blinded. There was positive effect of workplace intervention on reduction of alcohol consumption with pooled MD of -2.25 [95% CI: -4.20 to -0.30]. The effect was only seen where subjects had a baseline alcohol consumption of over 15 standard drinks per week. There was no heterogeneity across the trials (I2=0%). Funnel plot was symmetrical shaped and Egger's test confirmed that there was no publication bias. Two studies found no advantages to intervention on differences on the AUDIT test.

CONCLUSION: There is weak evidence for workplace interventions (varying modes) as a way of facilitating reduction in the consumption of alcohol among employees but only among the heavier consumers.

09 August 2019 In General Health

This paper aims to analyse Generation Y consumers'preferences for, interest in and attitudes towards different formats of health warnings onwine labels in two countries with different legal approaches: France and Italy. A Discrete Choice Experiment was realized on a sample of 500wine consumers. Three warning options were applied: the long-term effect of drinking (brain damage); a short-term effect (car crash) and nowarning option. Four attributes composed the choice set: alcohol content; framing of warning statement; warning size and position. Findingsreveal that both the general degree of attention to the label and the level of visibility of the warnings are low, as are their effectiveness inchanging consumption. Generation Y tend to prefer the "no logo option", short-term effects warnings and a small logo posted on the back label with neutrally framed messages. Results also show some significant differences among preferences in France and Italy, providing inputs to theongoing debate in the EU on mandatory labelling. Although findings are subject to limitations related to the use of self-reported questionnaireand prone to social-desirability bias, practical implications are clear for private companies interested in implementing marketing strategiesfocused on enhancing the efficacy and readability of labels.

09 August 2019 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: Past research examining the relationship between alcohol use and weight status has not differentiated among classes of obesity. There is limited research investigating whether adults trying to lose weight consume less alcohol.

METHODS: In 2018-2019, the authors analyzed 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for nonpregnant adults aged >/=20 years with BMI >/=18.5 kg/m(2). Multinomial and binomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to test associations between (1) past-year alcohol use and current weight status, differentiating among Class 1, 2, and 3 obesity, and (2) past-year weight loss attempt and alcohol use, controlling for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by sex.

RESULTS: Male current drinkers versus nondrinkers had lower odds of Class 3 obesity versus healthy weight (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.42, 0.92); female current drinkers versus nondrinkers had lower odds of Class 1 (AOR=0.67, 95% CI=0.50, 0.90), Class 2 (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46, 0.83), and Class 3 (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49, 0.89) obesity versus healthy weight. Among current drinkers, less frequent alcohol use was associated with higher odds of Class 1-3 obesity versus healthy weight in both sexes (p<0.05), whereas higher continued volume (heavier drinking) was associated with higher odds of Class 1-3 obesity versus healthy weight in females (p=0.049). Females reporting a weight loss attempt had higher odds of current drinking and more frequent heavy drinking.

CONCLUSIONS: Lower frequency of alcohol use (both sexes) and higher continued volume (female adults only) are associated with higher odds of higher weight status. Female adults trying to lose weight drink more, despite guidelines suggesting reducing caloric intake for weight control.

09 August 2019 In General Health

The relationship between alcohol drinking and chronic kidney damage, mainly including declined glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, and end-stage renal disease, was conflicting. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate their potential associations. PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify prospective studies assessing the associations between alcohol drinking and chronic kidney damage published up to March 2019. Random-effects model was employed to pool the relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup meta-analyses stratified by the basic characteristics of subjects were performed. A total of 15 cohort studies were included in the present study, with 268,723 participants and 31,766 incident cases. Participants with low (/=60 g/d) insignificantly increased 7% risk of chronic kidney damage (RR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53 to 2.15). No obvious heterogeneity and no publication bias were observed. Based on our meta-analysis, participants with alcohol drinking less than 60 g/d were at lower risk of declined GFR, especially in men or participants aged less than 55 yrs. Much more prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our present findings.

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