23 November 2020 In Drinking Patterns

AIMS: The aims of the article are (a) to estimate coverage rates (i.e. the proportion of 'real consumption' accounted for by a survey compared with more reliable aggregate consumption data) of the total, the recorded and the beverage-specific annual per capita consumption in 23 European countries, and (b) to investigate differences between regions, and other factors which might be associated with low coverage (prevalence of heavy episodic drinking [HED], survey methodology).

METHODS: Survey data were derived from the Standardised European Alcohol Survey and Harmonising Alcohol-related Measures in European Surveys (number of surveys: 39, years of survey: 2008-2015, adults aged 20-64 years). Coverage rates were calculated at the aggregated level by dividing consumption estimates derived from the surveys by alcohol per capita estimates from a recent global modelling study. Fractional response regression models were used to examine the relative importance of the predictors.

RESULTS: Large variation in coverage across European countries was observed (average total coverage: 36.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] [33.2; 39.8]), with lowest coverage found for spirits consumption (26.3, 95% CI [21.4; 31.3]). Regarding the second aim, the prevalence of HED was associated with wine- and spirits-specific coverage, explaining 10% in the respective variance. However, neither the consideration of regions nor survey methodology explained much of the variance in coverage estimates, regardless of the scenario.

CONCLUSION: The results reiterate that alcohol survey data should not be used to compare or estimate aggregate consumption levels, which may be better reflected by statistics on recorded or total per capita consumption.

23 November 2020 In Drinking Patterns

AIMS: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly disabling neuropsychiatric conditions. Although evidence suggests a high burden of AUDs in young adults, few studies have investigated their life course predictors. It is crucial to assess factors that may influence these disorders from early life through adolescence to deter AUDs in early adulthood by tailoring prevention and intervention strategies. This review aims to assess temporal links between childhood and adolescent predictors of clinically diagnosed AUDs in young adults.

METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Embase databases for longitudinally assessed predictors of AUDs in young adults. Data were extracted and assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment tool for cohort studies. We performed our analysis by grouping predictors under six main domains.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Twenty two studies met the eligibility criteria. The outcome in all studies was measured according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Our review suggests strong links between externalizing symptoms in adolescence and AUDs in young adulthood, as well as when externalizing symptoms co-occur with illicit drug use. Findings on the role of internalizing symptoms and early drinking onset were inconclusive. Environmental factors were influential but changed over time. In earlier years, maternal drinking predicted early adult AUD while parental monitoring and school engagement were protective. Both peer and parental influences waned in adulthood. Further high-quality large longitudinal studies that identify distinctive developmental pathways on the aetiology of AUDs and assess the role of early internalizing symptoms and early drinking onset are warranted.

23 November 2020 In Drinking Patterns

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between drinking patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the Korean general population and to validate the estimation of the association of alcohol use on HRQoL when former drinkers are separated from never drinkers and low-risk drinkers depending on gender. Data were collected from 23,055 adults (over 19 years old) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2013).

Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between drinking patterns and HRQoL. When former drinkers were separated from never drinkers and low-risk drinkers to control for misclassification bias, there were gender differences in the associations between alcohol use and HRQoL. Although the estimation of the association of alcohol use was not valid in men, the estimation of association was valid in women, as low-risk women drinkers showed better HRQoL than nondrinkers.

Therefore, when conducting research related to alcohol and health, analyses should correct for the various confounding variables and minimize the misclassification bias of drinking patterns. It is also necessary to consider gender characteristics when intervening to improve HRQoL related to drinking.

13 October 2020 In Drinking Patterns
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.
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