23 September 2021 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol consumption is a major public health concern that should be continuously monitored. This study aims (i) to analyze country-level trends in weekly alcohol consumption, drunkenness and early initiation in alcohol consumption and drunkenness among 15-year-old adolescents from 39 countries and regions across Europe and North America between 2002 and 2014 and (ii) to examine the geographical patterns in adolescent alcohol-related behaviours.

METHODS: The sample was composed of 250 161 adolescents aged 15 from 39 countries and regions from Europe and North America. Survey years were 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. The alcohol consumption and drunkenness items of the HBSC questionnaire were employed. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance.

RESULTS: Data show a general decrease in all four alcohol variables between 2002 and 2014 except for some countries. However, there is variability both within a country (depending on the alcohol-related behaviour under study) and across countries (in the beginning and shape of trends). Some countries have not reduced or even increased their levels in some variables. Although some particularities have persisted over time, there are no robust patterns by regions.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite an overall decrease in adolescent alcohol consumption, special attention should be paid to those countries where declines are not present, or despite decreasing, rates are still high. Further research is needed to clarify factors associated with adolescent drinking, to better understand country specificities and to implement effective policies.

26 May 2021 In Drinking Patterns
Objectives: Alcohol consumption and harms among older people are increasing. We examined different demographic characteristics and drinking patterns among an older population. Methods: Secondary analyses of nationally representative Australian data; subjects aged 50+ years (N = 10,856). Two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify demographic groups and alcohol consumption behaviours. Results: Three groups were identified: Group 1 (older, unmarried, and lived alone): >65 years, moderate drinkers, poorest health, psychological distress, social disadvantage, smokers, illicit drug users, and more frequent previous alcohol treatment. Group 3 (older married): >65 years, good health, low psychological distress, less likely to drink at risky levels, and one in five drank daily. Group 2 (younger married): 50-64 years, mostly employed, highest proportion of risky drinkers and of 5+ standard drinks per session, and liberal drinking attitudes with most concern from others about their drinking. Discussion: These demographic typologies can inform targeted prevention efforts for an estimated 1.3 million adults older than 50 years drinking at risky levels.
26 May 2021 In Drinking Patterns
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to examine the effect of calorie labelling and physical activity equivalence labelling of alcoholic drinks on drinking intentions in participants of lower and higher socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: Participants (N = 1,084) of higher and lower SEP were recruited into an online study and randomized into one of three drink label conditions; Control (standard alcohol labelling), kcal labelling (standard labelling plus drink kilocalorie information), or kcal + PACE labelling (standard labelling and kilocalorie information, plus information on physical activity needed to compensate for drink calories). After viewing drink labels, participants reported alcohol drinking intentions. Participants also completed measures of alcoholic drink energy content estimation, beliefs about how calorie labelling would affect health behaviour and support for calorie labelling of alcoholic drinks. RESULTS: kcal labelling (d = 0.31) and kcal + PACE labelling (d = 0.38) conditions had significantly lower drinking intentions compared to the control condition (ps
26 May 2021 In Drinking Patterns

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, the two most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, share a common pathology but have largely been considered disparate diseases. Liver diseases are widely underestimated, but their prevalence is increasing worldwide.

The Western diet (high-fat, high-sugar) and binge drinking (rapid consumption of alcohol in a short period of time) are two highly prevalent features of standard life in the United States, and both are linked to the development and progression of liver disease. Yet, few studies have been conducted to elucidate their potential interactions. Data shows binge drinking is on the rise in several age groups, and poor dietary trends continue to be prevalent.

This review serves to summarize the sparse findings on the hepatic consequences of the combination of binge drinking and consuming a Western diet, while also drawing conclusions on potential future impacts. The data suggest the potential for a looming liver disease epidemic, indicating that more research on its progression as well as its prevention is needed on this critical topic.

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