27 October 2022 In Diabetes
There is no abstract available for this article.
 
27 October 2022 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on alcohol drinking and health largely have ignored the potential impact of the timing of drinking.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the joint associations of the timing of alcohol intake with respect to meals (i.e., with meals or outside of meals) and the amount of alcohol consumed with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

METHODS: A total of 312,388 current drinkers from the UK Biobank without T2D at baseline were included. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between the timing of alcohol intake with respect to meals and the risk of T2D.

RESULTS: During a median of 10.9 y of follow-up, 8598 incident cases of T2D were documented. After adjustment for covariates and the amount of alcohol consumed, consuming alcohol with meals was significantly associated with a 12% lower risk of T2D (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.93) than was consuming alcohol outside of meals. In addition, we found that the timing of alcohol intake with respect to meals significantly modified the relations between the amount of alcohol consumed and risk of T2D (P-interaction = 0.017); the beneficial association of moderate drinking with T2D risk was only observed in participants who consumed alcohol with meals, but not in others. Further analyses on various types of alcoholic beverages indicated that the beneficial associations between alcohol drinking with meals and T2D were mainly driven by wine consumption. Moreover, we found that when consumed together with meals, drinking more wine, rather than other alcoholic beverages, was related to lower concentrations of C-reactive protein.

CONCLUSIONS: In current drinkers, moderate drinking of alcohol, especially wine, with meals is associated with a lower risk of T2D.

26 August 2022 In Diabetes

PURPOSE: To compare acute effects of moist snuff with or without nicotine and red wine with or without alcohol on prandial hormones and metabolism.

BASIC PROCEDURES AND METHODS: Two deciliters of wine, with or without alcohol, were taken together with a standardized supervised meal in 14 healthy women and men. All participants also combined the meal with usage of with moist snuff, with or without nicotine. The snuff was replaced hourly at each of the four settings, i.e. snuff with or without nicotine combined with red wine with or without alcohol, that started at 0800 o'clock and were finished at noon.

MAIN FINDINGS: We found ghrelin levels to be more efficiently suppressed when drinking red wine with alcohol compared to non-alcoholic wine by analyzing area under the curve (AUC). AUC for regular wine was 370 +/- 98 pg/ml x hours and 559 +/- 154 pg/ml x hours for de-alcoholized red wine, p < 0.0001 by general linear model. The postprandial metabolic rate was further elevated following alcohol containing red wine compared with non-alcoholic red wine (p = 0.022). Although glucose levels were not uniformly lower after alcoholic red wine, we found lowered glucose levels 3 h after the meal (mean glucose wine: 4.38 +/- 0.96 mmol/l, non-alcoholic wine: 4.81 +/- 0.77 mmol/l, p = 0.005). Nicotine-containing moist snuff (AUC: 1406 +/- 149 nmol/ml x hours) elevated the levels of serum cortisol compared with nicotine-free snuff (AUC: 1268 +/- 119 nmol/ml x hours, p = 0.005). We found no effects of nicotine or alcohol on feelings of satiety.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol in red wine augmented the postprandial suppression of ghrelin and it also lowered postprandial glucose 3 h post-meal. These effects are in line with observational trials linking regular intake of moderate amounts of red wine with lower risk for diabetes.

15 June 2022 In Diabetes

AIMS: Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of several dietary patterns plus physical activity to reduce diabetes onset in people with prediabetes. However, there is no evidence on the effect from the Mediterranean diet on the progression from prediabetes to diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the effect from high adherence to Mediterranean diet on the risk of diabetes in individuals with prediabetes.

METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Spanish Primary Care setting. A total of 1184 participants with prediabetes based on levels of fasting plasma glucose and/or glycated hemoglobin were followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. A total of 210 participants developed diabetes type 2 during the follow up. Hazard ratios of diabetes onset were estimated by Cox proportional regression models associated to high versus low/medium adherence to Mediterranean diet. Different propensity score methods were used to control for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Incidence rate of diabetes in participants with high versus low/medium adherence to Mediterranean diet was 2.9 versus 4.8 per 100 persons-years. The hazard ratios adjusted for propensity score and by inverse probability weighting (IPW) had identical magnitude: 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.93). The hazard ratio in the adjusted model using propensity score matching 1:2 was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.84).

CONCLUSIONS: These propensity score analyses suggest that high adherence to Mediterranean diet reduces diabetes risk in people with prediabetes.

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