26 November 2019 In Diabetes

A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism.

26 November 2019 In Cardiovascular System

A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism.

24 October 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although alcohol consumption is known to affect the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), reports on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on DM incidence have been inconsistent. This community-based prospective cohort study was performed to investigate the incidence of DM in male Korean moderate alcohol drinkers.

METHODS: The Ansan and Ansung cohort was used for the analysis. The study population included a total of 3,492 men with no history of DM. The subjects were classified as mild (1-14 g/d), moderate (15-29 g/d), and heavy (>/=30 g/d) drinkers based on their amount of alcohol consumption. The incidence rates of DM in the three groups were compared and analyzed over a 10 year follow-up period.

RESULTS: The hazard ratios (HRs) for DM incidence were 25.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.73-28.90) per 1,000 person years (PY) in mild drinkers, 31.13 (26.11-36.83) per 1,000 PY in moderate drinkers, and 31.68 (26.81-37.18) per 1,000 PY in heavy drinkers (p for trend, p = 0.043). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the HRs (95% CI) for DM were 1.25 (0.97-1.61, p = 0.086) in moderate drinkers and 1.30 (1.01-1.68, p = 0.045) in heavy drinkers compared to mild drinkers. The changes in pancreatic insulin secretion were more remarkable than those in insulin resistance in all three groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of DM in male Korean moderate drinkers did not increase significantly over the observation period. However, the incidence of DM tended to increase with increasing alcohol consumption. Pancreatic insulin secretion may play a more important role than insulin resistance in the relationship between alcohol and incidence of DM.

27 September 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: The association between change in alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome is unclear.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort consisted of 41,368 males and females from the Health Examinees-GEM study. Participants were divided into non-drinkers (0.0 g/day), light drinkers (male: 0.1 to 19.9 g/day; female: 0.1 to 9.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (male: 20.0 to 39.9 g/day; female: 10.0 to 19.9 g/day), and heavy drinkers (male: >/=40.0 g/day; female: >/=20.0 g/day) for each of the initial and follow-up health examinations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing metabolic syndrome according to the change in alcohol consumption between the initial and follow-up health examinations. Adjusted mean values for the change in waist circumference, fasting serum glucose (FSG), blood pressure, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined according to the change in alcohol consumption by linear regression analysis.

RESULTS: Compared to persistent light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to heavy levels had elevated risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.92). In contrast, heavy drinkers who became light drinkers had reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.84) compared to persistent heavy drinkers. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with elevated adjusted mean values for waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels (all P<0.05). Reduction in alcohol intake was associated with decreased waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels among initial heavy drinkers (all P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol consumption could benefit from reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

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