12 August 2019 In Diabetes

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence of associations between dietary factors and incidence of type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the strength and validity of these associations.

DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prospective observational studies.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, searched up to August 2018.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Systematic reviews with meta-analyses reporting summary risk estimates for the associations between incidence of type 2 diabetes and dietary behaviours or diet quality indices, food groups, foods, beverages, alcoholic beverages, macronutrients, and micronutrients.

RESULTS: 53 publications were included, with 153 adjusted summary hazard ratios on dietary behaviours or diet quality indices (n=12), food groups and foods (n=56), beverages (n=10), alcoholic beverages (n=12), macronutrients (n=32), and micronutrients (n=31), regarding incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methodological quality was high for 75% (n=115) of meta-analyses, moderate for 23% (n=35), and low for 2% (n=3). Quality of evidence was rated high for an inverse association for type 2 diabetes incidence with increased intake of whole grains (for an increment of 30 g/day, adjusted summary hazard ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93)) and cereal fibre (for an increment of 10 g/day, 0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)), as well as for moderate intake of total alcohol (for an intake of 12-24 g/day v no consumption, 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83)). Quality of evidence was also high for the association for increased incidence of type 2 diabetes with higher intake of red meat (for an increment of 100 g/day, 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26)), processed meat (for an increment of 50 g/day, 1.37 (1.22 to 1.54)), bacon (per two slices/day, 2.07 (1.40 to 3.05)), and sugar sweetened beverages (for an increase of one serving/day, 1.26 (1.11 to 1.43)).

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes has been extensively studied, but few of the associations were graded as high quality of evidence. Further factors are likely to be important in type 2 diabetes prevention; thus, more well conducted research, with more detailed assessment of diet, is needed.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018088106.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified conflicting results about the effects of wine intake on glucose parameters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study further investigated the association between wine digestion and these outcomes in T2DM patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases (up to November 2018) was performed for randomized interventional trials which evaluated the effect of wine on blood pressure (BP), glucose parameters and lipid profiles in T2DM people. We used a variety of tests: fixed and random effects models, Q Cochrane test and I index, Egger and Begg tests, forest plots, and sensitivity analysis in our study.

RESULTS: A total of 9 randomized interventional studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant association between wine intake with diastolic BP (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.01 to 0.20, P = .03 I = 13%) and total cholesterol (TC) (WMD = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.02-0.31, P = .03, I = 6%), whereas no noticeable differences in glucose parameters, systolic BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were identified between wine and controls groups (fasting glucose [FG],WMD = -0.00, 95% CI: -0.58 to 0.58; fasting insulin [FI], -0.22, -2.09 to 1.65; HbAc1%, -0.16, -0.40 to 0.07; systolic blood pressure, 0.12, -0.05 to 0.28; LDLC, -0.02, -0.25 to 0.21; TG, -0.34, -1.31 to 0.64; HDLC, 0.22, -0.08 to 0.53].

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that moderate wine consumption among T2DM patients could reduce the level of diastolic blood pressure and TC, but not glucose parameters and other cardiovascular risk factors.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption correlates with type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance, changes in alcohol metabolite levels, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to clarify association between frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of diabetes in Taiwanese population.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2001, 2005, and 2009 selected a representative sample of Taiwan population using a multistage sampling design. Information was collected by standardized face to face interview. Study subjects were connected to the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims dataset and National Register of Deaths Dataset from 2000 to 2013. Kaplan-Meier curve with log rank test was employed to assess the influence of alcohol drinking on incidence of diabetes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression were used to recognize risk factors of diabetes.

RESULTS: A total of 43,000 participants were included (49.65% male; mean age, 41.79 +/- 16.31 years). During the 9-year follow-up period, 3650 incident diabetes cases were recognized. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the four groups of alcohol consumption frequency showed significant differences (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potentially confounding variables, compared to social drinkers, the risks of diabetes were significantly higher for non-drinkers (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.34; p < 0.01), regular drinkers (AHR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35; p < 0.01), and heavy drinkers (AHR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.56-3.13, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Social drinkers have a significantly decreased risk of new-onset diabetes compared with non-, regular, and heavy drinkers.

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