21 July 2021 In Cancer
Alcohol consumption is a known cause of cancer, but its role in the etiology of second primary (metachronous) cancer is uncertain. Associations between alcohol intake up until study enrollment (prediagnosis) and risk of metachronous cancer were estimated using 9435 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who were diagnosed with their first invasive cancer after enrollment (1990-1994). Follow-up was from date of first invasive cancer until diagnosis of metachronous cancer, death or censor date (February 2018), whichever came first. Alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 until decade encompassing baseline using recalled beverage-specific frequency and quantity was used to calculate baseline and lifetime intakes, and group-based intake trajectories. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. After a mean follow-up of 7 years, 1512 metachronous cancers were identified. A 10 g/d increment in prediagnosis lifetime alcohol intake (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.06; Pvalue = .02) and an intake of >/=60 g/d (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.01-1.73) were associated with increased metachronous cancer risk. We observed positive associations (per 10 g/d increment) for metachronous colorectal (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.14), upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34) and kidney cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.10-1.39). Although these findings were partly explained by effects of smoking, the association for kidney cancer remained unchanged when current smokers or obese individuals were excluded. Alcohol intake trajectories over the life course confirmed associations with metachronous cancer risk. Prediagnosis long-term alcohol intake, and particularly heavy drinking, may increase the risk of metachronous cancer, particularly of the colorectum, UADT and kidney.
26 May 2021 In Cancer

High alcohol intake and breast density increase breast cancer (BC) risk, but their interrelationship is unknown. We examined whether volumetric density modifies and/or mediates the alcohol-BC association. BC cases (n = 2233) diagnosed from 2006 to 2013 in the San Francisco Bay area had screening mammograms 6 or more months before diagnosis; controls (n = 4562) were matched on age, mammogram date, race or ethnicity, facility, and mammography machine.

Logistic regression was used to estimate alcohol-BC associations adjusted for age, body mass index, and menopause; interaction terms assessed modification. Percent mediation was quantified as the ratio of log (odds ratios [ORs]) from models with and without density measures. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased BC risk (2-sided P trend = .004), as were volumetric percent density (OR = 1.45 per SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 1.56) and dense volume (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.37).

Breast density did not modify the alcohol-BC association (2-sided P > .10 for all). Dense volume mediated 25.0% (95% CI = 5.5% to 44.4%) of the alcohol-BC association (2-sided P = .01), suggesting alcohol may partially increase BC risk by increasing fibroglandular tissue.

26 May 2021 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several different types of cancer, including breast, liver, and colorectal cancer. While prior studies have found low awareness of the overall alcohol-cancer link, few have examined how awareness differs for each type of cancer. Greater awareness of risks associated with alcohol use may be a key factor in reducing alcohol-related cancer incidence.

METHODS: We surveyed 1759 people of legal drinking age at the 2019 Minnesota State Fair. We used multivariable generalized linear models and linear regression models with robust standard errors to investigate factors associated with alcohol-cancer risk awareness. Models were fit examining predictors of overall awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer, and prevalence of awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for specific types of cancer.

RESULTS: Prevalence of awareness varied by cancer type, with awareness of alcohol causing liver cancer having the highest prevalence (92%) and awareness of alcohol causing breast cancer having the lowest prevalence (38%). Factors associated with awareness of alcohol-cancer risk differed by type of cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: In general, awareness of the risk of alcohol for certain types of cancer was low to moderate, reflecting a need to inform people not only that alcohol increases risk of cancer, but which types of cancer are most highly associated alcohol.

26 May 2021 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer (FBC) is a malignancy involving multiple risk factors and has imposed heavy disease burden on women. We aim to analyze the secular trends of mortality rate of FBC according to its major risk factors.

METHODS: Death data of FBC at the global, regional, and national levels were retrieved from the online database of Global Burden of Disease study 2017. Deaths of FBC attributable to alcohol use, high body-mass index (BMI), high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low physical activity, and tobacco were collected. Estimated average percentage change (EAPC) was used to quantify the temporal trends of age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of FBC in 1990-2017.

RESULTS: Worldwide, the number of deaths from FBC increased from 344.9 thousand in 1990 to 600.7 thousand in 2017. The ASMR of FBC decreased by 0.59% (95% CI, 0.52, 0.66%) per year during the study period. This decrease was largely driven by the reduction in alcohol use- and tobacco-related FBC, of which the ASMR was decreased by 1.73 and 1.77% per year, respectively. In contrast, the ASMR of FBC attributable to high BMI and high FPG was increased by 1.26% (95% CI, 1.22, 1.30%) and 0.26% (95% CI, 0.23, 0.30%) per year between 1990 and 2017, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of FBC experienced a reduction over the last three decades, which was partly owing to the effective control for alcohol and tobacco use. However, more potent and tailored prevention strategies for obesity and diabetes are urgently warranted.

Page 1 of 31


The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.