26 November 2019 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether alcohol consumption may impact survival after breast cancer diagnosis. To clarify the association between pretreatment alcohol consumption and survival in breast cancer patients, a prospective patient cohort study was conducted.

METHODS: The cohort comprised 1,420 breast cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2013 at a single institute in Japan. Alcohol drinking and other lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire survey at the initial admission. The patients were followed until December 31, 2016. The crude associations of pretreatment alcohol intake with survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) controlled by confounders.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 8.6 years, 261 all-cause and 193 breast cancer-specific deaths were documented. Survival curves showed that ever-drinkers tended to have better survival than never-drinkers (breast cancer-specific survival, log-rank p = 0.0381). Better survival was also observed for light drinkers with an intake of /=5.0 g compared with never-drinking). In terms of hormone receptor status, a significantly decreased risk of death associated with ever-drinking was observed among women with receptor-negative cancer (ER-/PR-, HR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.20-0.84 for breast cancer-specific death).

CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment, i.e., pre-diagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have an adverse effect on survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Light alcohol consumption may have a beneficial effect on patient survival.

26 November 2019 In Cancer

Mediterranean diet (MD) is a well-known healthy dietary pattern, linked to: (1) high intakes of olive oil as main the culinary fat, plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, tree nuts, and seeds), and fish; and (2) a moderate consumption of white meat, eggs, dairy products such as yogurt and cheese, and wine always with meals [...].

27 September 2019 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, its association with subsequent risk of breast cancer death is unclear.

METHODS: We followed 4523 women with complete information on relevant risk factors for mortality; these women were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. During follow up (median, 8.6 years), 1055 women died; 824 died from breast cancer. The information on alcohol consumption before diagnosis was collected shortly after breast cancer diagnosis (average: 5.1 months) during an in-person interview which used a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific mortality, mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, and all-cause mortality associated with alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis and during recent periods of time prior to breast cancer diagnosis.

RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.01). Compared to non-drinkers, women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category (>/=7 drinks/week) had 25% lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.56-1.00). Breast cancer mortality risk was also reduced among women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category in two recent time periods (5-year period ending 2-years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95; 2-year period immediately prior to breast cancer diagnosis: HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). Furthermore, analyses of average weekly alcohol consumption by beverage type from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis suggested that wine consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk (wine Ptrend = 0.06, beer Ptrend = 0.24, liquor Ptrend = 0.74). No association with any of these alcohol consumption variables was observed for mortality risk due to causes other than breast cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence that alcohol consumption before breast cancer diagnosis increases subsequent risk of death from breast cancer.

27 September 2019 In Cancer

Background: Alcohol intake is a leading modifiable cause related to cancer-specific deaths. Various alcohol intake patterns have shown to impact cancer progression differently, however, many studies only evaluated simplified patterns (such as heavy vs. non-heavy drinking) of alcohol intake for cancer survivors. The objective of this study is to provide population-based prevalence of the complex alcohol drinking patterns for cancer survivors, and compare it with that of non-cancer individuals. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of cancer related factors (binary, alcohol-related cancer type, and length of cancer history) to the alcohol intake patterns adjusted for the selected factors. Methods: A total of 193,197 individuals, including 16,504 cancer survivors, with age >/=18 years old in the 2012-2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included in this study. The population-based prevalence of alcohol patterns was estimated. To evaluate cancer related factors associated with the alcohol intake patterns, we applied multinomial logistic models with the appropriate sampling weights and adjusted the selected demographic factors and smoking status. Results: There were 62.1% of cancer survivors and 66.0% of non-cancer individuals who were current alcohol drinkers in the past year. The prevalence of heavy drinking was identical for 5.2% of cancer and non-cancer individuals. For frequent binge drinking, cancer survivors tended to have less frequent binge than non-cancer individuals (2.8% vs. 4.9%). After adjusting for the selected demographic factors and smoking status, the cancer survivors were less likely to have the intermediate level of alcohol intake (light/moderate or occasional binge drinking) compared with non-cancer individuals, but no difference for the excessive alcohol intake (heavy or frequent binge drinking) was observed for those with and without cancer. As for cancer type, those with non-alcohol related cancer tended to be a current drinker compared with those with alcohol-related cancer. Compared with cancer survivors with a short cancer history (2-4 years), survivors with a cancer history of 5-9 years were more likely to be current drinkers after adjusting for the selected factors. Cancer status, alcohol-related cancer type and length of cancer history had no impact on excessive alcohol intake.

Conclusions: In summary, cancer survivors have similar excessive alcohol drinking patterns but were less likely to have the intermediate level of alcohol intake compared to non-cancer individuals. Alcohol intake may enhance cancer progression, interfere with cancer treatments and increase cancer-related mortality. To improve cancer survivors' health, custom alcohol interventions and cessation programs should be conducted to minimize alcohol intake for cancer survivors, especially for excessive alcohol drinkers.

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