23 November 2022 In Cancer

There is evidence that diet and nutrition are modifiable risk factors for several cancers, but associations may be flawed due to inherent biases. Nutritional epidemiology studies have largely relied on a single assessment of diet using food frequency questionnaires. We conduct an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies to evaluate the strength and validity of the evidence for the association between food/nutrient intake and risk of developing or dying from 11 primary cancers. It is estimated that only few single food/nutrient and cancer associations are supported by strong or highly suggestive meta-analytic evidence, and future similar research is unlikely to change this evidence. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, esophageal, head & neck and liver cancer. Consumption of dairy products, milk, calcium and wholegrains are inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with risk of liver cancer and skin basal cell carcinoma.

23 November 2022 In Cancer

The relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer has no consistent results both in epidemiological studies and animal models. The inaccuracy of alcohol consumption dosage in the experimental design maybe leads to inconsistent results and makes the researchers ignore the effect of very-light alcohol consumption on cancer. To determine the effects of very-light alcohol consumption on cancer, in this study, the manner of gavage was used to control the alcohol consumption accurately. The impacts of age and time of drinking on cancer progression were also evaluated in this study. Here, we find that a certain range of alcohol consumption (from 0.5% w/v to 2.0% w/v) can suppress tumor development in the breast metastasis mouse model by controlling the alcohol consumption dosage accurately. RNA sequencing analyses were performed in primary tumors and related metastases from the NC group and 1.0% w/v group. The results of primary tumors and related metastases indicated that chronic very-light alcohol consumption downregulates breast tumor-associated oncogenes in primary tumors and regulates the immune system and metabolic system in metastatic carcinoma. To provide the public with drinking recommendations, eight commercial alcohol types were investigated at a dosage of 1.0% w/v. Two types of commercial alcohol, red wine (made in France, brand 1) and baijiu (made in China, brand 1), exerted excellent primary tumor and metastasis inhibitory effects. The untargeted metabolomic analysis of commercial alcohol by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated that baijiu (brand 1) and baijiu (brand 2) exhibited a difference in compositions that can lead to their different anti-cancer effects. These results indicated that a certain range of very light alcohol dosages might have a potential human-cancer inhibition effect.

27 October 2022 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Although alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a global health threat, there are no specific effective treatments for it. Thus, efforts at preventing ALD are important and could be enhanced by using strategies based on validated risk and protective factors for the disease.

METHODS: The literature on factors influencing the risk for ALD was systematically searched from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases from inception to June 2022. Factors suitable for quantitative analysis were submitted to meta-analysis using fixed-effects and random-effects models to calculate each factor's risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

RESULTS: Ten cohort studies (covering 1,005,339 subjects) that reported a clear causal relationship were included in the analysis, involving 11 potential risk factors (sex, race, education level, body mass index, alcohol consumption, types of alcoholic beverage, duration of drinking, drinking frequency, smoking, coffee consumption, and tea consumption). Three of these factors (sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking) were subjected to meta-analysis, and the results showed that male sex (RR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.86-4.36), alcohol consumption >/=280 g/week (RR = 4.96, 95% CI = 2.71-9.07), and smoking (RR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.97-2.89) were risk factors for ALD.

CONCLUSIONS: Many factors are likely to influence the incidence of ALD, and male sex, heavy alcohol consumption, and smoking increase the risk of ALD. The relationship between other factors and ALD risk needs further evaluation.

27 October 2022 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database on May 23, 2021 (registration number: CRD42021256649), and updated on August 4, 2022. Two researchers performed a literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases for articles published before July 15, 2022 independently. Studies investigating the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and IVF/ICSI outcomes were included, and studies reporting the consumption amount were analyzed using a one-stage robust error meta-regression-based method to explore potential dose-response relationships. Funnel plot was used to assess publication bias if more than 10 studies were included.

RESULTS: Twelve studies on caffeine consumption and 14 studies on alcohol consumption were included in the systematic review, of which seven and nine were eligible for the meta-analysis. These studies included 26 922 women and/or their spouses who underwent IVF/ICSI treatment. Women's and men's caffeine consumption was not significantly associated with the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.12; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.14; respectively) and the live birth rate (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08; OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.86-1.12; respectively) of IVF/ICSI. Maternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.01). Paternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with partner's live birth after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99). Compared with abstainers, the chance of achieving a pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment decreased by 7% for women who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), and the chance of partners achieving a live birth decreased by 9% for men who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94).

CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between caffeine consumption and pregnancy or live birth rate of IVF/ICSI. Women's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased pregnancy rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g. Men's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased live birth rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g.

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