25 October 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Young adult binge drinking prevalence has been widely researched. However, beverage-specific binge drinking rates for beer, liquor, wine, and wine coolers have not yet been documented for this age group. This study examines consumption of specific beverages (i.e., 5+ drinks in a row in the past two weeks) by young adults aged 19/20. Data from the national Monitoring the Future study were collected one or two years after high school from 2004 to 2014 (n=2004). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between beverage-specific 5+ drinking and gender, race/ethnicity, parent education, college status, and cohort year. Overall 5+ drinking in the past two weeks was reported by 31.4% of young adults. Beverage-specific 5+ drinking was most common with liquor (22.6%) and beer (22.4%), followed by wine (4.5%) and wine coolers (3.0%). Men were more likely than women to engage in 5+ drinking with beer and liquor; women were more likely than men to do so with wine and wine coolers. Beverage-specific patterns differed by college attendance. Compared to four-year college students, two-year college/votech students were less likely to have 5+ drinks of liquor or wine, and more likely to have 5+ wine coolers; those not in college were less likely to have 5+ drinks of liquor and more likely to have 5+ wine coolers. Differences in beverage-specific 5+ drinking by gender and college enrollment suggest that intervention efforts should focus on the beverages that are most commonly consumed at high levels within specific early young adult populations.

25 October 2016 In Cardiovascular System
Ethanol consumption is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in heavy ethanol drinkers. The effect of moderate ethanol intake on left ventricular function in hypertension, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between ethanol consumption and cardiac changes in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients. In 335 patients with primary hypertension, we assessed daily ethanol consumption by questionnaires that combined evaluation of recent and lifetime ethanol exposure and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Patients with abnormal liver tests, previous cardiovascular events, left ventricular ejection fraction
25 October 2016 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: The effects of light to moderate alcohol consumption on cardiac mechanics remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) function using myocardial deformation.

METHODS: In total 3,946 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 49.7 +/- 10.7 years; 65% men) were consecutively studied using comprehensive echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking in a cross-sectional, retrospective manner. Global LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and LA strain were assessed and related to habitual alcohol consumption pattern (fewer than one, one to six, or more than six drinks per week) before and after propensity matching.

RESULTS: With increasing weekly alcohol consumption, participants displayed greater LV eccentric remodeling, impaired diastolic function, and more attenuated global longitudinal strain, LA strain (adjusted coefficients, -1.07 [95% CI, -1.95 to -0.19] and -3.73 [95% CI, -5.36 to -2.11]), and early diastolic strain rates (adjusted coefficients, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.03-0.11] and 0.33 [95% CI, 0.24-0.42]) for one to six and more than six drinks per week, respectively (P < .05 for all) in a dose-response manner. Participants with recent alcohol abstinence displayed cardiac mechanics intermediate between those of nondrinkers and current drinkers. After propensity matching (n = 1,140), participants currently consuming more than one drink per week continued to have significantly attenuated global longitudinal strain and all LA mechanics compared with those consuming fewer than one drink per week (P < .05 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: Habitual alcohol consumption, even at light to moderate doses, is associated with both reduced LV and LA mechanics in a dose-dependent manner. Whether such observations are reversible or related to future atrial fibrillation deserves further study.

25 October 2016 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol intake and breast cancer recurrence or development of second primary breast cancer in the survivor population is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence to assess the extent to which alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer recurrence and second primary breast cancer.

METHODS: Six databases (Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched using the following search phrase: (breast cancer OR breast adenocarcinoma OR breast neoplasm OR breast tumour) AND (alcohol * OR alcohol intake OR alcohol consumption OR ethanol) AND (recurrence OR second primary). A narrative synthesis was conducted on studies meeting the inclusion criteria.

RESULTS: After screening, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 assessed breast cancer recurrence and 5 assessed second primary breast cancer. Considerable clinical and methodological heterogeneity was observed between studies. Approximately half of the included studies observed a modest, but significant, association between alcohol consumption and increased risk of breast cancer recurrence or development of a second primary breast cancer, with some studies observing associations from as little as six grams of alcohol intake per day. Two studies suggest this association was stronger in postmenopausal women.

CONCLUSION: There is some evidence that alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer recurrence, particularly in postmenopausal women. The association between alcohol and development of a second primary breast cancer is less clear. Inconsistencies in methodology and results across studies complicate attempts to develop a cohesive interpretation of findings.

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