15 December 2016 In General Health

SCOPE: There is growing interest in understanding how human colonic microbiota can be modified by dietary habits. We examined the influence of moderate red wine intake on the colonic microbiota of 15 healthy volunteers, related to the high concentration of polyphenols present in this beverage. The volunteers were classified into high, moderate, and low polyphenol metabolizers (metabotypes) due to their ability to metabolize polyphenols and the results were compared with that of five control (no wine intake) subjects.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the composition, diversity, and dynamics of their fecal microbiota before and after 1 month of wine consumption. The 16S rDNA sequencing allowed detection of 2324 phylotypes, of which only 30 were found over the 0.5% of mean relative frequency, representing 84.6% of the total taxonomical assignments. The samples clustered more strongly by individuals than by wine intake or metabotypes, however an increase in diversity, after the wine intake, was observed.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest an increase in the global fecal microbial diversity associated to the consumption of red wine, confirm the high variability of the microbiota from different individuals, and show the stability of their singular microbiota composition to small and short-term dietary changes.

15 December 2016 In General Health

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) are sparse and conflicting. We assessed the risk of major GIB associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in a large, prospective cohort.

METHODS: We prospectively studied 48,000 men in the Health Professional follow-up Study (HPFS) who were aged 40-75 years at baseline in 1986. We identified men with major GIB requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion via biennial questionnaires and chart review.

RESULTS: We documented 305 episodes of major GIB during 26 years of follow-up. Men who consumed >30 g/day of alcohol had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-2.35; P for trend 0.006) for major GIB when compared with nondrinkers. Alcohol consumption appeared to be primarily related to upper GIB (multivariable RR for >30 g/day vs. nondrinkers was 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66-2.77; P for trend 0.02). Men who consumed >/= 5 drinks/week vs. < 1 drink/month of liquor had a multivariable RR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.26-2.35, P for trend <0.001). Wine and beer were not significantly associated with major GIB. The risk of GIB associated with NSAIDs/aspirin use increased with greater alcohol consumption (multivariable RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.85-2.19 for 1-14g/day of alcohol, RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07-2.88 for >/= 15g/day compared to nondrinkers). Smoking was not significantly associated with GIB.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption, but not smoking, was associated with an increased risk of major GIB. Associations were most notable for upper GIB associated with liquor intake. Alcohol appeared to potentiate the risk of NSAID-associated GIB.

15 December 2016 In General Health

BACKGROUND: To estimate the benchmark dose (BMD) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) of alcohol consumption as the reference level for the development of hyperuricemia based on the dose-response relationship.

METHODS: An 8-year prospective cohort study was conducted in 8097 male workers at a Japanese steel company who received annual health check-ups between 2002 and 2009. The endpoints for development of hyperuricemia were defined as a uric acid >/=7 mg/dL or taking any anti-hyperuricemic medication. The dose-response relationship of alcohol consumption was investigated using multivariate-pooled logistic regression analyses adjusted for other potential covariates. We estimated the BMD and BMDL of alcohol consumption for the development of hyperuricemia, using the parameters obtained by pooled logistic regression with a benchmark response (BMR) of 5% or 10%.

RESULTS: Mean observed years per person was 3.86 years. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 61.1. The odds ratio calculated for the development of hyperuricemia was 1.29 [95% confidence interval, (1.22-1.36)] with an increase in alcohol consumption per 1 gou/day (1 gou/day = alcohol 22 g/day). The estimated BMDL/BMD with a BMR of 5% was 2.5/2.8 gou/day (54.5/61.8 g/day) and with a BMR of 10% was 4.0/4.6 gou/day (88.9/100.9 g/day).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that alcohol consumption of 2.5 gou/day (=ethanol 55 g/day) caused a distinct increase in the risk of hyperuricemia. Valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hyperuricemia was obtained by a long-term follow-up study of a large cohort.

15 December 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

PURPOSE: We seek answers to three questions about adolescent risk of starting to drink alcoholic beverages: (1) in new United States (US) data, can we reproduce a recently discovered female excess risk? (2) has a female excess risk emerged in European countries? and (3) might the size of country-level female-male differences (FMD) be influenced by macro-level gender equality and development processes?

METHODS: Estimates are from US and European surveys of adolescents, 2010-2014. For US estimates, newly incident drinking refers to consuming the first full drink during the 12-month interval just prior to assessment. For all countries, lifetime cumulative incidence of drinking refers to any drinking before assessment of the sampled 15-16 years.

RESULTS: Cumulative meta-analysis summary estimates from the US show a highly reproducible female excess in newly incident drinking among 12-17 years (final estimated female-male difference in risk, FMD = 2.1%; 95% confidence interval = 1.5%, 2.7%). Several European countries show female excess risk, estimated as lifetime cumulative incidence of drinking onsets before age 17 years. At the country level, the observed magnitude of FMD in risk is positively associated with the Gender Development Index (especially facets related to education and life expectancy of females relative to males), and with residence in a higher income European country.

CONCLUSIONS: New FMD estimates support reproducibility of a female excess risk in the US. In Europe, evidence of a female excess is modest. Educational attainment, life expectancies, and income merit attention in future FMD research on suspected macro-level processes that influence drinking onsets.

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