28 April 2022 In General Health

This work aimed to relate alcohol consumption with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and with food neophobia (FN) among Italian and Spanish university students. Volunteers (n = 194, 108 Italian and 86 Spanish), recruited at the La Sapienza University of Rome and the Catholic University of Murcia, filled in standardized questionnaires to evaluate alcohol consumption (AUDIT), FN (FN Scale: FNS), and adherence to the MD (MDS-14, MED-55, QueMD).

In addition to the previously reported QueMD sub-score (aMED), a sub-score for non-typical MD foods (ntMED, carbonated and/or sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks), butter, margarine, or cooking cream, and manufactured sweets, pastries, and cakes) was evaluated. Italian females had higher MED-55 and FNS scores, and a lower AUDIT score than Spaniards (p < 0.01). Students who stayed with their family (resident) were more adherent to MD than those who moved away from home. Resident Italians consumed less beer, hard liquors, and cocktails than Spaniards on Saturday nights (p < 0.01).

There were negative correlations between AUDIT and QueMD (R squared: 0.137, p < 0.05), and AUDIT and ntMED (R squared: 0.201, p < 0.01) in Spaniards, however, there was no relationship between AUDIT and other MD scores. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that non-typical MD foods and Saturday night consumptions, related to being far from home, have a great impact on alcohol consumption.

28 April 2022 In General Health
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is a major threat to global health. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a Chinese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4664 participants, aged >/=18 years, who participated in a baseline alcohol survey in 1997 and were followed up in 2009 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were recruited in the current study. Data on alcohol consumption was obtained using standardized questionnaires, with CKD (defined as eGFR
28 April 2022 In General Health

Alcohol exposure, and particularly chronic heavy drinking, affects all components of the adaptive immune system. Studies both in humans and in animal models determined that chronic alcohol abuse reduces the number of peripheral T cells, disrupts the balance between different T-cell types, influences T-cell activation, impairs T-cell functioning, and promotes T-cell apoptosis.

Chronic alcohol exposure also seems to cause loss of peripheral B cells, while simultaneously inducing increased production of immunoglobulins. In particular, the levels of antibodies against liver-specific autoantigens are increased in patients with alcoholic liver disease and may promote alcohol-related liver damage. Finally, chronic alcohol exposure in utero interferes with normal T-cell and B-cell development, which may increase the risk of infections during both childhood and adulthood.

Alcohol's impact on T cells and B cells increases the risk of infections (e.g., pneumonia, HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and tuberculosis), impairs responses to vaccinations against such infections, exacerbates cancer risk, and interferes with delayed-type hypersensitivity. In contrast to these deleterious effects of heavy alcohol exposure, moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the adaptive immune system, including improved responses to vaccination and infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol's impact on the adaptive immune system remain poorly understood.

28 April 2022 In General Health

Data are conflicting about the effects of alcohol intake on kidney function. This population-based study investigated associations of alcohol intake with kidney function and mortality. The study cohort included adult participants in Exam-1, Exam-2 (6-year follow-up), and Exam-3 (20-year follow-up) of the Gubbio study.

Kidney function was evaluated as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi equation, mL/min x 1.73 m(2)). Daily habitual alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires. Wine intake accounted for >94% of total alcohol intake at all exams. Alcohol intake significantly tracked over time (R > 0.66, p < 0.001). Alcohol intake distribution was skewed at all exams (skewness > 2) and was divided into four strata for analyses (g/day = 0, 1-24, 25-48, and >48). Strata of alcohol intake differed substantially for lab markers of alcohol intake (p < 0.001).

In multivariable regression, strata of alcohol intake related cross-sectionally to eGFR at all exams (Exam-1: B = 1.70, p < 0.001; Exam-2: B = 1.03, p < 0.001; Exam-3: B = 0.55, p = 0.010) and related longitudinally to less negative eGFR change from Exam-1 to Exam-2 (B = 0.133, p = 0.002) and from Exam-2 to Exam-3 (B = 0.065, p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox models, compared to no intake, intakes > 24 g/day were not associated with different mortality while an intake of 1-24 g/day was associated with lower mortality in the whole cohort (HR = 0.77, p = 0.003) and in the subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min x 1.73 m(2) (HR = 0.69, p = 0.033). These data indicate a positive independent association of alcohol intake with kidney function not due to a mortality-related selection.

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