29 January 2023 In General Health
Alcohol is a widely consumed substance in the United States, however its effect on aging remains understudied. In this study of young adults, we examined whether cumulative alcohol consumption, i.e., alcohol years of beer, liquor, wine, and total alcohol, and recent binge drinking, were associated with four measures of age-related epigenetic changes via blood DNA methylation. A random subset of study participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study underwent DNA methylation profiling using the Illumina MethylationEPIC Beadchip. Participants with alcohol consumption and methylation data at examination years 15 (n = 1,030) and 20 (n = 945) were included. Liquor and total alcohol consumption were associated with a 0.31-year (P = 0.002) and a 0.12-year (P = 0.013) greater GrimAge acceleration (GAA) per additional five alcohol years, while beer and wine consumption observed marginal (P = 0.075) and no associations (P = 0.359) with GAA, respectively. Any recent binge drinking and the number of days of binge drinking were associated with a 1.38-year (P
26 January 2023 In Cancer

Experimental evidence suggests that alcohol induces cutaneous carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies on the link between alcohol intake and skin cancer have been inconsistent.

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were assessed using validated country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires.

Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in Cox models.

A total of 14 037 skin cancer cases (melanoma: n = 2457; basal-cell carcinoma (BCC): n = 8711; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC): n = 1928; unknown: n = 941) were identified among 450 112 participants (average follow-up: 15 years). Baseline alcohol intake was positively associated with SCC (>15 vs 0.1-4.9 g/day: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17-1.77; P(trend) = .001), BCC (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23; P(trend) = .04), and melanoma risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.44; P(trend) = .17), while associations were more modest in women (SCC: HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.90-1.30; P(trend) = .13; BCC: HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, P(trend) = .03; melanoma: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.80-1.08, P(trend) = .13).

Associations were similar for lifetime alcohol intake, with an attenuated linear trend. Lifetime liquor/spirit intake was positively associated with melanoma (fourth vs first quartile: HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-1.99; P(trend) = .0009) and BCC risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.31; P(trend) = .14). Baseline and lifetime intakes of wine were associated with BCC risk (HR = 1.25 in men; HR = 1.11-1.12; in women).

No statistically significant associations were found between beverage types and SCC risk.

Intake of beer was not associated with skin cancer risk. Our study suggests positive relationships between alcohol intake and skin cancer risk, which may have important implications for the primary prevention of skin cancer.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenolic compound mainly present in grapes and red wine.

It is known to exert beneficial effects in various experimental settings, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunoregulatory.

Accumulating evidence suggests these health benefits might be, at least partially, attributed to resveratrol's role in protecting the intestinal barrier, regulating the gut microbiome, and inhibiting intestinal inflammation.

The purpose of this review is to examine the bioactivities of resveratrol in disease prevention and health promotion from the standpoint of regulating the gut microbiome.

The article aims to provide additional insight into the potential applications of resveratrol in the food and nutraceutical industry.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

We analyzed 3344 publications concerned with the health-related effects of resveratrol that occurs in wine and grapes. We discovered that publication activity increased until 2010 and decreased slightly afterwards.

The most frequent author keywords were classified into six groups: (1) beverage-related keywords, (2) compound-related keywords, (3) disease-related keywords, (4) effect-related keywords, (5) mechanism-related keywords, and (6) broader keywords.

By means of reference publication year spectroscopy, we analyzed and discussed the most frequently cited references (i.e., key papers) within the publication set. A rather large portion of the key papers exhibit a deliberative or positive attitude and report on the health effects of resveratrol, although limited data in humans preclude drawing unambiguous conclusions on its health-related benefits. From our analysis, we could not identify specific publications that provide a distinct change of direction of the ongoing scientific discourse. Moderate red wine consumption seems to bear the potential of being health promoting, whereas excessive alcohol consumption can induce liver cirrhosis and cancer.

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