27 October 2022 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database on May 23, 2021 (registration number: CRD42021256649), and updated on August 4, 2022. Two researchers performed a literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases for articles published before July 15, 2022 independently. Studies investigating the association between caffeine and alcohol consumption and IVF/ICSI outcomes were included, and studies reporting the consumption amount were analyzed using a one-stage robust error meta-regression-based method to explore potential dose-response relationships. Funnel plot was used to assess publication bias if more than 10 studies were included.

RESULTS: Twelve studies on caffeine consumption and 14 studies on alcohol consumption were included in the systematic review, of which seven and nine were eligible for the meta-analysis. These studies included 26 922 women and/or their spouses who underwent IVF/ICSI treatment. Women's and men's caffeine consumption was not significantly associated with the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.12; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.14; respectively) and the live birth rate (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08; OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.86-1.12; respectively) of IVF/ICSI. Maternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.01). Paternal alcohol consumption was negatively associated with partner's live birth after IVF/ICSI treatment (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99). Compared with abstainers, the chance of achieving a pregnancy after IVF/ICSI treatment decreased by 7% for women who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), and the chance of partners achieving a live birth decreased by 9% for men who consumed 84 g alcohol per week (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94).

CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between caffeine consumption and pregnancy or live birth rate of IVF/ICSI. Women's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased pregnancy rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g. Men's alcohol consumption was associated with decreased live birth rate after IVF/ICSI treatment when weekly consumption was greater than 84 g.

27 October 2022 In General Health

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is interrelated to stroke, heart attack, and heart failure. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been closely associated with reduced CVD morbidity and mortality, but research is not well explored for this relationship in individuals with diabetes (who experience greater CVD morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes). The aim of this review was to explore the literature related to the MedDiet and atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes. In total, 570 articles were identified, and 36 articles were included. The articles were published between 2011 and 2021. Platforms used for the search were PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest. Our literature search included clinical and observational studies. Clinical studies revealed the MedDiet was associated with improved biomarkers, plaque, and anthropometric measurements that are associated with atherosclerosis and CVD. Observational studies identified associations between the MedDiet and lower presence of atherosclerosis, improved vascular aging, and increased endothelial progenitor cells. However, most of the studies took place in Mediterranean countries. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects the MedDiet on atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors in diverse populations to include individuals with and without diabetes.

27 October 2022 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain represents a global health problem with a considerable economic burden. The relation of alcohol intake and chronic pain conditions was assessed in several studies with conflicting results. We used dose-response meta-analysis techniques to answer the question of whether alcohol intake is related to chronic pain occurrence.

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases to identify cohort and case-control studies on alcohol consumption and chronic pain. Sixteen studies were eligible with a total population of 642 587 individuals. Fixed-effects and random-effects pooled estimates were obtained by weighting log odds ratios (ORs) in case-control studies and log incidence rate ratios in cohort studies by the inverse of their variance. A heterogeneity assessment and a dose-response analysis were carried out. Quality scoring was also performed.

RESULTS: Our results show that any alcohol consumption was related to lower odds of chronic pain (pooled OR=0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.95). The association was non-linear. The ORs by quartile of alcohol doses were as follows: OR2nd quartile=0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87; OR3rd quartile=0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86; and OR4th quartile=0.75; 95% CI, 0.50-1.14. This association was observed for cohort studies (OR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.98) and European studies (OR=0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.87) only. Studies with complete adjustment for confounding factors showed a stronger relation than those with incomplete adjustment (OR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99 and OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.65-1.11, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption presents a non-linear inverse association with the occurrence of chronic pain. Although plausible mechanisms could explain this protective effect, other explanations, including reverse causation, are probable.

27 October 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Research has long found 'J-shaped' relationships between alcohol consumption and certain health outcomes, indicating a protective effect of moderate consumption. However, methodological limitations in most studies hinder causal inference. This review aimed to identify all observational studies employing improved approaches to mitigate confounding in characterizing alcohol-long-term health relationships, and to qualitatively synthesize their findings.

METHODS: Eligible studies met the above description, were longitudinal (with pre-defined exceptions), discretized alcohol consumption, and were conducted with human populations. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and SCOPUS were searched in May 2020, yielding 16 published manuscripts reporting on cancer, diabetes, dementia, mental health, cardiovascular health, mortality, HIV seroconversion, and musculoskeletal health. Risk of bias of cohort studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and a recently developed tool was used for Mendelian Randomization studies.

RESULTS: A variety of functional forms were found, including reverse J/J-shaped relationships for prostate cancer and related mortality, dementia risk, mental health, and certain lipids. However, most outcomes were only evaluated by a single study, and few studies provided information on the role of alcohol consumption pattern.

CONCLUSIONS: More research employing enhanced causal inference methods is urgently required to accurately characterize alcohol-long-term health relationships. Those studies that have been conducted find a variety of linear and non-linear functional forms, with results tending to be discrepant even within specific health outcomes.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42020185861.

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