18 August 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Polyphenols is a major group of non-nutrients, considering their diversity, occurrence, and biological properties. Polyphenols play essential roles in the prevention of chronic diseases through the mitigation of inflammation, commonly referred to as meta-flammation. Inflammation is the most common feature of chronic diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and obesity. This aim of this review was to present a wide spectrum of literature data, including the current understanding of the role of polyphenols in the prevention and management of chronic diseases and their ability to interact with other food compounds in food systems. The publications cited are based on animal models, cohort studies, case controls, and feeding experiments. The significant effects of dietary polyphenols in cancers and cardiovascular diseases are evaluated. The interactive possibilities of dietary polyphenols with other dietary food compounds in food systems and their effects are also presented. However, despite several works, estimation of dietary intake is still inconclusive and a major challenge.

18 August 2023 In Liver Disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), once considered a benign condition, has been associated with several cardiometabolic complications over the past two decades. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD is as high as 30%. NAFLD requires the absence of a "significant alcohol intake." Conflicting reports have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective; therefore, the diagnosis of NAFLD previously relied on negative criteria. However, there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption globally. Apart from the rise in alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), alcohol, a major toxin, is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to disability-adjusted life years. Recently, the term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed instead of NAFLD to include the metabolic dysfunction responsible for the major adverse outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease. MAFLD, dependent on the "positive diagnostic criteria" rather than previous exclusion criteria, may identify individuals with poor metabolic health and aid in managing patients at increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Although MAFLD is less stigmatizing than NAFLD, excluding alcohol intake may increase the risk of already existing underreported alcohol consumption in this subgroup of patients. Therefore, alcohol consumption may increase the prevalence of fatty liver disease and its associated complications in patients with MAFLD. This review discusses the effects of alcohol intake and MAFLD on fatty liver disease.

18 August 2023 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic risk factors (MetRs) are associated with hepatic and cardiac outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD). We evaluated whether MetRs have different effects on alcoholic FLD (AFLD) and non-alcoholic FLD (NAFLD).

METHODS: We used a standardised common data model to analyse data from seven university hospital databases between 2006 and 2015. MetRs included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity. Follow-up data were analysed for the incidence of hepatic outcomes, cardiac outcomes, and death in patients with AFLD or NAFLD and based on MetRs within AFLD and NAFLD.

RESULTS: Out of 3,069 and 17,067 patients with AFLD and NAFLD, respectively, 2,323 (75.7%) and 13,121 (76.9%) had one or more MetR, respectively. Patients with AFLD were at a higher risk of hepatic outcomes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 5.81) compared with those with NAFLD irrespective of MetR. The risk of cardiac outcomes in AFLD and NAFLD became similar with the increasing number of MetRs. Patients with NAFLD without MetRs demonstrated a lower risk of cardiac outcomes, but not hepatic outcomes, compared with those with MetRs (aRR, 0.66 and 0.61 for MetR >/=1 and MetR >/=2, respectively; p <0.05). In patients with AFLD, hepatic and cardiac outcomes were not associated with MetRs.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical impact of MetRs in patients with FLD may differ between patients with AFLD and those with NAFLD.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: With the increasing prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic syndrome, the increase in associated complications, such as liver and heart diseases, has become an important social issue. Particularly in patients with FLD with excessive alcohol consumption, the incidence of liver and heart disease is pronounced because of the dominant effect of alcohol over the effects of other factors. Thus, appropriate screening and management of alcohol consumption in patients with FLD are vital.

18 August 2023 In General Health
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce alcohol consumption would contribute to substantial health benefits in the population, including reducing cancer risk. The increasing accessibility and applicability of digital technologies make these powerful tools suitable to facilitate changes in behaviour in young people which could then translate into both immediate and long-term improvements to public health. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of systematic reviews to assess the available evidence on digital interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption in sub-populations of young people [school-aged children, college/university students, young adults only (over 18 years) and both adolescent and young adults (<25 years)]. METHODS: Searches were conducted across relevant databases including KSR Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Records were independently screened by title and abstract and those that met inclusion criteria were obtained for full text screening by two reviewers. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with the ROBIS checklist. We employed a narrative analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven systematic reviews were included that addressed relevant interventions in one or more of the sub-populations, but those reviews were mostly assessed as low quality. Definitions of "digital intervention" greatly varied across systematic reviews. Available evidence was limited both by sub-population and type of intervention. No reviews reported cancer incidence or influence on cancer related outcomes. In school-aged children eHealth multiple health behaviour change interventions delivered through a variety of digital methods were not effective in preventing or reducing alcohol consumption with no effect on the prevalence of alcohol use [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.36, review rated low RoB, minimal heterogeneity]. While in adolescents and/or young adults who were identified as risky drinkers, the use of computer or mobile device-based interventions resulted in reduced alcohol consumption when comparing the digital intervention with no/minimal intervention (-13.4 g/week, 95% CI: -19.3 to -7.6, review rated low RoB, moderate to substantial heterogeneity).In University/College students, a range of E-interventions reduced the number of drinks consumed per week compared to assessment only controls although the overall effect was small [standardised mean difference (SMD): -0.15, 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.09]. Web-based personalised feedback interventions demonstrated a small to medium effect on alcohol consumption (SMD: -0.19, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.11) (review rated high RoB, minimal heterogeneity). In risky drinkers, stand-alone Computerized interventions reduced short (SMD: -0.17, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.08) and long term (SMD: -0.17, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04) alcohol consumption compared to no intervention, while a small effect (SMD: -0.15, 95% CI: -0.25 to -0.06) in favour of computerised assessment and feedback vs. assessment only was observed. No short-term (SMD: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.30 to 0.11) or long-term effect (SMD: -0.11, 95% CI: -0.53 to 0.32) was demonstrated for computerised brief interventions when compared to counsellor based interventions (review rated low RoB, minimal to considerable heterogeneity). In young adults and adolescents, SMS-based interventions did not significantly reduce the quantity of drinks per occasion from baseline (SMD: 0.28, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.58) or the average number of standard glasses per week (SMD: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05) but increased the risk of binge drinking episodes (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.32-4.53, review rated high RoB; minimal to substantial heterogeneity). For all results, interpretation has limitations in terms of risk of bias and heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence suggests some potential for digital interventions, particularly those with feedback, in reducing alcohol consumption in certain sub-populations of younger people. However, this effect is often small, inconsistent or diminishes when only methodologically robust evidence is considered. There is no systematic review evidence that digital interventions reduce cancer incidence through alcohol moderation in young people. To reduce alcohol consumption, a major cancer risk factor, further methodologically robust research is warranted to explore the full potential of digital interventions and to form the basis of evidence based public health initiatives.
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