25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Background: Resveratrol is a polyphenol chemical that naturally occurs in many plant-based dietary products, most notably, red wine. Discovered in 1939, widespread interest in the potential health benefits of resveratrol emerged in the 1970s in response to epidemiological data on the cardioprotective effects of wine. Objective: To explore the background of resveratrol (including its origins, stability, and metabolism), the metabolic effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action, and a potential future role of dietary resveratrol in the lifestyle management of obesity.

Data sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a Pubmed search, using the following search terms: "resveratrol", "obesity", "Diabetes Mellitus", and "insulin sensitivity". Results: Following its ingestion, resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism. This includes conjugation (with sulfate and glucuronate) within enterocytes, hydrolyzation and reduction within the gut through the action of the microbiota (with the formation of metabolites such as dihydroresveratrol), and enterohepatic circulation via the bile.

Ex vivo studies on adipose tissue reveal that resveratrol inhibits adipogenesis and prevents the accumulation of triglycerides through effects on the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and sirtuin 1, respectively. Furthermore, resveratrol induces anti-inflammatory effects, supported by data from animal-based studies. Limited data from human-based studies reveal that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and may improve inflammatory status in human obesity.

Although numerous mechanisms may underlie the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, evidence supports a role in its interaction with the gut microbiota and modulation of protein targets, including sirtuins and proteins related to nitric oxide, insulin, and nuclear hormone receptors (such as PPARgamma). Conclusions: Despite much interest, there remain important unanswered questions regarding its optimal dosage (and how this may differ between and within individuals), and possible benefits within the general population, including the potential for weight-loss and improved metabolic function. Future studies should properly address these important questions before we can advocate the widespread adoption of dietary resveratrol supplementation.

25 January 2023 In Liver Disease

Alcohol use and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent in the population and frequently co-exist. Both are implicated in a large range of health problems, including chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related outcomes (i.e. decompensation or liver transplantation). Studies have yielded mixed results regarding the effects of mild-moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease, possibly due to methodological differences. The few available prospective studies have indicated that mild-moderate alcohol use is associated with an increase in liver-related outcomes. This conclusion was substantiated by systems biology analyses suggesting that alcohol and metabolic syndrome may play a similar role in fatty liver disease, potentiating an already existing dysregulation of common vital homeostatic pathways. Alcohol and metabolic factors are independently and jointly associated with liver-related outcomes. Indeed, metabolic syndrome increases the risk of liver-related outcomes, regardless of alcohol intake. Moreover, the components of metabolic syndrome appear to have additive effects when it comes to the risk of liver-related outcomes. A number of population studies have implied that measures of central/abdominal obesity, such as the waist-to-hip ratio, can predict liver-related outcomes more accurately than BMI, including in individuals who consume harmful quantities of alcohol. Many studies even point to synergistic interactions between harmful alcohol use and many metabolic components. This accumulating evidence showing independent, combined, and modifying effects of alcohol and metabolic factors on the onset and progression of chronic liver disease highlights the multifactorial background of liver disease in the population. The available evidence suggests that more holistic approaches could be useful for risk prediction, diagnostics and treatment planning.

25 January 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota profiles are closely related to cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms that include the reported deleterious effects of metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moderate red wine (RW) consumption is reportedly cardioprotective, possibly by affecting the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of RW consumption on the gut microbiota, plasma TMAO, and the plasma metabolome in men with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) using a multiomics assessment in a crossover trial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, controlled trial involving 42 men (average age, 60 y) with documented CAD comparing 3-wk RW consumption (250 mL/d, 5 d/wk) with an equal period of alcohol abstention, both preceded by a 2-wk washout period. The gut microbiota was analyzed via 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Plasma TMAO was evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The plasma metabolome of 20 randomly selected participants was evaluated by ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. The effect of RW consumption was assessed by individual comparisons using paired tests during the abstention and RW periods. RESULTS: Plasma TMAO did not differ between RW intervention and alcohol abstention, and TMAO concentrations showed low intraindividual concordance over time, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.049 during the control period. After RW consumption, there was significant remodeling of the gut microbiota, with a difference in beta diversity and predominance of Parasutterella, Ruminococcaceae, several Bacteroides species, and Prevotella. Plasma metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in metabolites after RW consumption, consistent with improved redox homeostasis.

ONCLUSIONS: Modulation of the gut microbiota may contribute to the putative cardiovascular benefits of moderate RW consumption. The low intraindividual concordance of TMAO presents challenges regarding its role as a cardiovascular risk biomarker at the individual level. This study was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT03232099.

25 January 2023 In General Health

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a chronic disease, a major public health problem due to its association with non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Indeed, people with obesity are at increased risk for a variety of obesity-related disorders including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and several cancers. Many popular diets with very different macronutrient composition, including the Mediterranean diet (MD), have been used, proposed, and studied for prevention and management of obesity. In particular, MD has been the subject of countless studies over the years and now boasts a large body of scientific literature. In this review, we aimed to update current knowledge by summarizing the most recent evidence on the effect of MD on obesity and obesity-related disorders.

RECENT FINDINGS: The negative effects of obesity are partly reversed by substantial weight loss that can be achieved with MD, especially when low-calorie and in combination with adequate physical activity. In addition, the composition of MD has been correlated with an excellent effect on reducing dyslipidemia. It also positively modulates the gut microbiota and immune system, significantly decreasing inflammatory mediators, a common ground for many obesity-related disorders. People with obesity are at increased risk for a variety of medical disorders including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an inevitable need for measures to manage obesity and its related disorders. At this point, MD has been proposed as a valuable nutritional intervention. It is characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, fruit, nuts, cereals, whole grains, and extra virgin olive oil, as well as a moderate consumption of fish and poultry, and a limited intake of sweets, red meat, and dairy products. MD proves to be the healthiest dietary pattern available to tackle obesity and prevent several non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

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