22 October 2021 In General Health
Harmful alcohol use is a leading cause of premature death and is associated with age-related disease. Biological ageing is highly variable between individuals and may deviate from chronological ageing, suggesting that biomarkers of biological ageing (derived from DNA methylation or brain structural measures) may be clinically relevant. Here, we investigated the relationships between alcohol phenotypes and both brain and DNA methylation age estimates. First, using data from UK Biobank and Generation Scotland, we tested the association between alcohol consumption (units/week) or hazardous use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] scores) and accelerated brain and epigenetic ageing in 20,258 and 8051 individuals, respectively. Second, we used Mendelian randomisation (MR) to test for a causal effect of alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) on biological ageing. Alcohol use showed a consistent positive association with higher predicted brain age (AUDIT-C: beta = 0.053, p = 3.16 x 10(-13) ; AUDIT-P: beta = 0.052, p = 1.6 x 10(-13) ; total AUDIT score: beta = 0.062, p = 5.52 x 10(-16) ; units/week: beta = 0.078, p = 2.20 x 10(-16) ), and two DNA methylation-based estimates of ageing, GrimAge (units/week: beta = 0.053, p = 1.48 x 10(-7) ) and PhenoAge (units/week: beta = 0.077, p = 2.18x10(-10) ). MR analyses revealed limited evidence for a causal effect of AUD on accelerated brain ageing (beta = 0.118, p = 0.044). However, this result should be interpreted cautiously as the significant effect was driven by a single genetic variant. We found no evidence for a causal effect of alcohol consumption levels on accelerated biological ageing. Future studies investigating the mechanisms associating alcohol use with accelerated biological ageing are warranted.
22 October 2021 In General Health
This review aims at summarizing updated evidence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with consumption of specific food items to substantiate dietary strategies for atherosclerosis prevention. A systematic search on PubMed was performed to identify meta-analyses of cohort studies and RCTs with CVD outcomes. The evidence is highly concordant in showing that, for the healthy adult population, low consumption of salt and foods of animal origin, and increased intake of plant-based foods-whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts-are linked with reduced atherosclerosis risk. The same applies for the replacement of butter and other animal/tropical fats with olive oil and other unsaturated-fat-rich oil. Although the literature reviewed overall endorses scientific society dietary recommendations, some relevant novelties emerge. With regard to meat, new evidence differentiates processed and red meat-both associated with increased CVD risk-from poultry, showing a neutral relationship with CVD for moderate intakes. Moreover, the preferential use of low-fat dairies in the healthy population is not supported by recent data, since both full-fat and low-fat dairies, in moderate amounts and in the context of a balanced diet, are not associated with increased CVD risk; furthermore, small quantities of cheese and regular yogurt consumption are even linked with a protective effect. Among other animal protein sources, moderate fish consumption is also supported by the latest evidence, although there might be sustainability concerns. New data endorse the replacement of most high glycemic index (GI) foods with both whole grain and low GI cereal foods. As for beverages, low consumption not only of alcohol, but also of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced atherosclerosis risk while soft drinks show a direct relationship with CVD risk. This review provides evidence-based support for promoting appropriate food choices for atherosclerosis prevention in the general population.
22 October 2021 In General Health
The influence of body mass or metabolic capacity on the association between alcohol consumption and lower risks of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully elucidated. We examined whether the body mass index (BMI) affects the association between drinking alcohol and CKD. We defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline /= 1+). Participants were 11,175 Japanese individuals aged 40-74 years without baseline CKD who underwent annual health checkups. Daily alcohol consumption at baseline was estimated using a questionnaire, and the participants were categorized as "infrequent (occasionally, rarely or never)," "light (/= 40 g/day)." Over a median 5-year observation period, 936 participants developed CKD. Compared with infrequent drinkers, light drinkers were associated with low CKD risks; adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.81 (0.69-0.95). Stratified by BMI (kg/m(2)), moderate drinkers in the low (/= 25.0) BMI groups had adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 3.44 (1.60-7.42), 0.75 (0.58-0.98), and 0.63 (0.39-1.04), respectively. Taken together, the association between alcohol consumption and CKD incidence was not the same in all the individuals, and individual tolerance must be considered.
22 October 2021 In General Health
Although the detrimental effects of heavy drinking in terms of health are well-documented in the literature, there are inconsistent findings regarding the safety of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption. In particular, little is still known about the consumption of specific alcoholic beverages in combination with dietary habits and lifestyle, which in turn could influence health status. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarise and critically evaluate the evidence of a relationship between preference for alcoholic beverages and consumer dietary and lifestyle habits. A literature search retrieved 3,887 articles. By removing duplicates and articles which were not relevant, the final number of articles was 26. The adherence to a healthier diet and lifestyle was generally observed in light-to-moderate alcohol consumers, especially when wine was the preferred beverage. Considering the potentially strong impact of drinking patterns on health and the risk of developing chronic diseases, the data summarised in this review highlight that alcoholic beverage preferences, drinking patterns, dietary patterns and lifestyle should be studied together. Any future epidemiological studies should analyse the relationship between alcohol consumption and the abovementioned correlations with respect to impact on health.</p>
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