18 August 2023 In Pregnant Women

INTRODUCTION: According to a precautionary principle, it is recommended that pregnant women and women trying to conceive abstain from alcohol consumption. In this dose-response meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of miscarriage in the first and second trimesters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library in May 2022, without any language, geographic or time limitations. Cohort or case-control studies reporting dose-specific effects adjusting for maternal age and using separate risk assessments for first- and second-trimester miscarriages were included. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. This study is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42020221070.

RESULTS: A total of 2124 articles were identified. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. Adjusted data from 153 619 women were included in the first-trimester analysis and data from 458 154 women in the second-trimester analysis. In the first and second trimesters, the risk of miscarriage increased by 7% (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.20) and 3% (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08) for each additional drink per week, respectively, but not to a statistically significant degree. One article regarding binge drinking and the risk of miscarriage was found, which revealed no association between the variables in either the first or second trimester (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.14] and OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.78-1.38]).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis revealed no dose-dependent association between miscarriage risk and alcohol consumption, but further focused research is recommended. The research gap regarding miscarriage and binge drinking needs further investigation.

18 August 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Polyphenols is a major group of non-nutrients, considering their diversity, occurrence, and biological properties. Polyphenols play essential roles in the prevention of chronic diseases through the mitigation of inflammation, commonly referred to as meta-flammation. Inflammation is the most common feature of chronic diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and obesity. This aim of this review was to present a wide spectrum of literature data, including the current understanding of the role of polyphenols in the prevention and management of chronic diseases and their ability to interact with other food compounds in food systems. The publications cited are based on animal models, cohort studies, case controls, and feeding experiments. The significant effects of dietary polyphenols in cancers and cardiovascular diseases are evaluated. The interactive possibilities of dietary polyphenols with other dietary food compounds in food systems and their effects are also presented. However, despite several works, estimation of dietary intake is still inconclusive and a major challenge.

18 August 2023 In Liver Disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), once considered a benign condition, has been associated with several cardiometabolic complications over the past two decades. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD is as high as 30%. NAFLD requires the absence of a "significant alcohol intake." Conflicting reports have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective; therefore, the diagnosis of NAFLD previously relied on negative criteria. However, there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption globally. Apart from the rise in alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD), alcohol, a major toxin, is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to disability-adjusted life years. Recently, the term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed instead of NAFLD to include the metabolic dysfunction responsible for the major adverse outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease. MAFLD, dependent on the "positive diagnostic criteria" rather than previous exclusion criteria, may identify individuals with poor metabolic health and aid in managing patients at increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Although MAFLD is less stigmatizing than NAFLD, excluding alcohol intake may increase the risk of already existing underreported alcohol consumption in this subgroup of patients. Therefore, alcohol consumption may increase the prevalence of fatty liver disease and its associated complications in patients with MAFLD. This review discusses the effects of alcohol intake and MAFLD on fatty liver disease.

18 August 2023 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic risk factors (MetRs) are associated with hepatic and cardiac outcomes in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD). We evaluated whether MetRs have different effects on alcoholic FLD (AFLD) and non-alcoholic FLD (NAFLD).

METHODS: We used a standardised common data model to analyse data from seven university hospital databases between 2006 and 2015. MetRs included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity. Follow-up data were analysed for the incidence of hepatic outcomes, cardiac outcomes, and death in patients with AFLD or NAFLD and based on MetRs within AFLD and NAFLD.

RESULTS: Out of 3,069 and 17,067 patients with AFLD and NAFLD, respectively, 2,323 (75.7%) and 13,121 (76.9%) had one or more MetR, respectively. Patients with AFLD were at a higher risk of hepatic outcomes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 5.81) compared with those with NAFLD irrespective of MetR. The risk of cardiac outcomes in AFLD and NAFLD became similar with the increasing number of MetRs. Patients with NAFLD without MetRs demonstrated a lower risk of cardiac outcomes, but not hepatic outcomes, compared with those with MetRs (aRR, 0.66 and 0.61 for MetR >/=1 and MetR >/=2, respectively; p <0.05). In patients with AFLD, hepatic and cardiac outcomes were not associated with MetRs.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical impact of MetRs in patients with FLD may differ between patients with AFLD and those with NAFLD.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: With the increasing prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic syndrome, the increase in associated complications, such as liver and heart diseases, has become an important social issue. Particularly in patients with FLD with excessive alcohol consumption, the incidence of liver and heart disease is pronounced because of the dominant effect of alcohol over the effects of other factors. Thus, appropriate screening and management of alcohol consumption in patients with FLD are vital.

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