18 August 2023 In General Health
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce alcohol consumption would contribute to substantial health benefits in the population, including reducing cancer risk. The increasing accessibility and applicability of digital technologies make these powerful tools suitable to facilitate changes in behaviour in young people which could then translate into both immediate and long-term improvements to public health. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of systematic reviews to assess the available evidence on digital interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption in sub-populations of young people [school-aged children, college/university students, young adults only (over 18 years) and both adolescent and young adults (<25 years)]. METHODS: Searches were conducted across relevant databases including KSR Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Records were independently screened by title and abstract and those that met inclusion criteria were obtained for full text screening by two reviewers. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with the ROBIS checklist. We employed a narrative analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven systematic reviews were included that addressed relevant interventions in one or more of the sub-populations, but those reviews were mostly assessed as low quality. Definitions of "digital intervention" greatly varied across systematic reviews. Available evidence was limited both by sub-population and type of intervention. No reviews reported cancer incidence or influence on cancer related outcomes. In school-aged children eHealth multiple health behaviour change interventions delivered through a variety of digital methods were not effective in preventing or reducing alcohol consumption with no effect on the prevalence of alcohol use [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.36, review rated low RoB, minimal heterogeneity]. While in adolescents and/or young adults who were identified as risky drinkers, the use of computer or mobile device-based interventions resulted in reduced alcohol consumption when comparing the digital intervention with no/minimal intervention (-13.4 g/week, 95% CI: -19.3 to -7.6, review rated low RoB, moderate to substantial heterogeneity).In University/College students, a range of E-interventions reduced the number of drinks consumed per week compared to assessment only controls although the overall effect was small [standardised mean difference (SMD): -0.15, 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.09]. Web-based personalised feedback interventions demonstrated a small to medium effect on alcohol consumption (SMD: -0.19, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.11) (review rated high RoB, minimal heterogeneity). In risky drinkers, stand-alone Computerized interventions reduced short (SMD: -0.17, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.08) and long term (SMD: -0.17, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04) alcohol consumption compared to no intervention, while a small effect (SMD: -0.15, 95% CI: -0.25 to -0.06) in favour of computerised assessment and feedback vs. assessment only was observed. No short-term (SMD: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.30 to 0.11) or long-term effect (SMD: -0.11, 95% CI: -0.53 to 0.32) was demonstrated for computerised brief interventions when compared to counsellor based interventions (review rated low RoB, minimal to considerable heterogeneity). In young adults and adolescents, SMS-based interventions did not significantly reduce the quantity of drinks per occasion from baseline (SMD: 0.28, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.58) or the average number of standard glasses per week (SMD: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05) but increased the risk of binge drinking episodes (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.32-4.53, review rated high RoB; minimal to substantial heterogeneity). For all results, interpretation has limitations in terms of risk of bias and heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence suggests some potential for digital interventions, particularly those with feedback, in reducing alcohol consumption in certain sub-populations of younger people. However, this effect is often small, inconsistent or diminishes when only methodologically robust evidence is considered. There is no systematic review evidence that digital interventions reduce cancer incidence through alcohol moderation in young people. To reduce alcohol consumption, a major cancer risk factor, further methodologically robust research is warranted to explore the full potential of digital interventions and to form the basis of evidence based public health initiatives.
18 August 2023 In General Health

Background A lifestyle comprising a healthy diet, light alcohol consumption, no smoking, and moderate or intense physical activity has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the association of a healthy lifestyle index (HLI), derived from scores for each of these components plus waist circumference, with the risk of incident CVD and CVD subtypes in postmenopausal women with normal body mass index (18.5-63 years), body mass index (</>/= 22.0 kg/m(2)), and general health status (absence/presence of hypertension, diabetes, or lipid-lowering drug use) also showed inverse associations between HLI and risk of CVD. Conclusions Among postmenopausal women with a normal body mass index, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is associated with a reduced risk of clinical CVD and CVD subtypes, underscoring the cardiovascular benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, even for women with a healthy weight.

18 August 2023 In General Health

The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol-related diseases has been widely explored. Less is known, however, on whether the association of moderate drinking with all-cause mortality is modified by educational level (EL). Using harmonized data from 16 cohorts in the MORGAM Project (N = 142,066) the association of pattern of alcohol intake with hazard of all-cause mortality across EL (lower = primary-school; middle = secondary-school; higher = university/college degree) was assessed using multivariable Cox-regression and spline curves. A total of 16,695 deaths occurred in 11.8 years (median). In comparison with life-long abstainers, participants drinking 0.1-10 g/d of ethanol had 13% (HR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.74-1.02), 11% (HR = 0.89; 0.84-0.95) and 5% (HR = 0.95; 0.89-1.02) lower rate of death in higher, middle and lower EL, respectively. Conversely, drinkers > 20 g/d had 1% (HR = 1.01; 0.82-1.25), 10% (HR = 1.10; 1.02-1.19) and 17% (HR = 1.17; 1.09-1.26) higher rate of death. The association of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a different J-shape by EL levels. It was consistent across both sexes and in various approaches of measuring alcohol consumption, including combining quantity and frequency and it was more evident when the beverage of preference was wine. We observed that drinking in moderation (</= 10 g/d) is associated with lower mortality rate more evidently in individuals with higher EL than in people with lower EL, while heavy drinking is associated with higher mortality rate more evidently in individuals with lower EL than in people with higher EL, suggesting that advice on reducing alcohol intake should especially target individuals of low EL.

18 August 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration has been reported to be associated with adverse renal outcomes in general population. It is not known whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy individuals.

METHODS: We prospectively followed middle-aged 8,640 Japanese men with normal renal function, no proteinuria, no diabetes, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were gathered by questionnaire. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >/=117 mL/min/1.73 m(2), which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of eGFR in the entire cohort.

RESULTS: During 46,186 person-years of follow-up, 330 men developed glomerular hyperfiltration. In a multivariate model, for men who consumed alcohol on 1-3 days per week, alcohol consumption of >/=69.1g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration (hazard ratio (HR), 2.37 (95% CI, 1.18-4.74)) compared with non-drinkers. For those who consumed alcohol on 4-7 days per week, higher alcohol consumption per drinking day was associated with a higher risk of glomerular hyperfiltration: the HRs (95% CI) for alcohol consumption of 46.1-69.0, and >/=69.1 g ethanol/drinking day were 1.55 (1.01-2.38), and 1.78 (1.02-3.12), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: For high drinking frequency per week, more alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration, while for low drinking frequency per week, only very high alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in middle-aged Japanese men.

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