27 April 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Emerging evidence suggests that diets rich in plant-based foods and beverages may exert plausible effects on human health tackling the risk of chronic diseases. Although the data are promising for numerous outcomes, including cardiovascular diseases, the data on mental health are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between individual polyphenol-rich beverages intake and mental health outcomes, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality, among adult individuals living in the Mediterranean area.

The demographic and dietary characteristics of a sample of 1572 adults living in southern Italy were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between individual polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverages containing polyphenols and mental health outcomes. The multivariate model adjusted for background covariates and the Mediterranean diet showed that individuals with a moderate intake (up to 1 cup/glass per day) of coffee and tea were less likely to have high perceived stress (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45-0.84) and depressive symptoms (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.80), respectively. Furthermore, regular coffee and moderate/regular red wine drinkers were less likely to have depressive symptoms (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95 and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99, respectively).

No significant associations were retrieved for the intake of polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverages and sleep quality. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that polyphenol-rich beverages may be associated with mental health, in terms of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Nonetheless, further research exploring how the polyphenol-rich beverages impact brain health and what the optimal patterns of consumption are for different populations are warranted.

27 April 2023 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use increases the risk of many conditions in addition to liver disease; patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are therefore at risk from both extra-hepatic and hepatic disease. AIMS: This review synthesises information about non-liver-related mortality in persons with ALD. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies describing non-liver outcomes in ALD. Information about overall non-liver mortality was extracted from included studies and sub-categorised into major causes: cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-liver cancer and infection. Single-proportion meta-analysis was done to calculate incidence rates (events/1000 patient-years) and relative risks (RR) compared with control populations.

RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies describing 50 302 individuals with 155 820 patient-years of follow-up were included. Diabetes, CVD and obesity were highly prevalent amongst included patients (5.4%, 10.4% and 20.8% respectively). Outcomes varied across the spectrum of ALD: in alcohol-related fatty liver the rate of non-liver mortality was 43.4/1000 patient-years, whereas in alcoholic hepatitis the rate of non-liver mortality was 22.5/1000 patient-years. The risk of all studied outcomes was higher in ALD compared with control populations: The RR of death from CVD was 2.4 (1.6-3.8), from non-hepatic cancer 2.2 (1.6-2.9) and from infection 8.2 (4.7-14.3). CONCLUSION: Persons with ALD are at high risk of death from non-liver causes such as cardiovascular disease and non-hepatic cancer.

27 April 2023 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: Multiple studies have found a relationship between alcohol consumption and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although reverse causation has been suggested to explain the association. We aimed to study the relationship between alcohol consumption and disease activity, disease progression, and health-related quality of life in patients with RA. METHODS: We followed up 1,228 patients with newly diagnosed RA from a population-based case-control study, Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA). Drinkers and non-drinkers were compared to evaluate risk of unfavorable outcomes regarding disease activity and health-related quality of life. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Non-drinkers at baseline had higher disease activity and estimated their pain as more severe compared to drinkers. At 1 year of follow-up, non-drinkers reported higher swollen and tender joint counts and experienced more pain and fatigue, lower global health scores, and lower health-related quality of life. The inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and RA-specific outcomes was also observed when comparing drinkers and non-drinkers who had not changed their alcohol consumption habits at or after the year of disease onset. Those who stopped drinking postbaseline experienced higher disease activity, more pain, and lower health-related quality of life at 1 year of follow-up, compared to drinkers, although there was no difference in disease activity at baseline between drinkers who continued versus discontinued drinking. Our findings argue against bias due to reverse causation. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption was associated with lower disease activity and higher health-related quality of life in RA patients in a dose-dependent manner.

27 April 2023 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to shed light on contradictory associations of alcohol intake with waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) by examining 5-yr changes in alcohol intake in relation to 5-yr WC and BMI changes. METHODS: This prospective study included 4,355 participants (1,974 men and 2,381 women) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study at baseline (1985-1986) and followed over 25 years (2010-2011). Longitudinal random effects linear regression models were used to test whether changes in drinking (defined categorically) as starting to drink, increasing, decreasing, stable drinking or stopping drinking (versus stable non-drinking) over a series of 5-yr periods were associated with corresponding 5-yr WC and BMI changes. Associations with 5-yr changes (defined categorically as starting, stable or stopping) in drinking level (i.e., light/moderate and excessive) and 5-yr changes (defined categorically as increasing, no change, or decreasing) by beverage type (i.e., beer, wine and liquor/mixed drinks) were also examined.

RESULTS: In men, compared to stable non-drinking, decreasing total alcohol intake was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta:-0.62 cm; 95% CI: -1.09, -0.14 cm) and BMI gains (beta:-0.20 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.03 kg/m2) and stopping excessive drinking was associated with lower 5-yr WC gains (beta:-0.77 cm; 95% CI: -1.51, -0.03 cm). In women, compared to those with stable non-drinking habits, starting light/moderate drinking was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta: -0.78 cm; 95% CI: -1.29, -0.26 cm) and BMI gains (beta:-0.42 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.20 kg/m2). Increasing wine intake was associated with a lower 5-yr BMI gain (beta:-0.27 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.03 kg/m2). Decreasing liquor/mixed drink (beta:-0.33 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.09 kg/m2) intake was associated with lower 5-yr WC (beta:-0.88 cm; 95% CI: -1.43, -0.34 cm) and BMI (beta:-0.33 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.09 kg/m2) gains. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of alcohol intake with obesity measures are complex. In women, wine and liquor/mixed drink intakes had contrasting associations with WC and BMI change. In men, decreasing weekly alcoholic beverage intake with an emphasis on stopping excessive consumption may be beneficial in managing WC and BMI gains.

Page 7 of 254


The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.