06 May 2014 In Cancer




Alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer among women in the general population, but its effect on women who carry a BRCA gene mutation is unclear. We conducted a case-control study of 1925 matched pairs of predominantly premenopausal women who carry a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation. Information on current alcohol consumption was obtained from a questionnaire administered during the course of genetic counselling or at the time of enrolment. A modest inverse association between breast cancer and reported current alcohol consumption was observed among women with a BRCA1 mutation (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.96), but not among women with a BRCA2 mutation (OR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.71-1.41). Compared to non-drinkers, exclusive consumption of wine was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 carriers (p-trend = 0.01). Alcohol consumption does not appear to increase breast cancer risk in women carrying a BRCA gene mutation.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: The relationship between alcohol intake and rectal cancer is uncertain.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether alcohol consumption is associated with distal colorectal cancer and rectal cancer specifically.

DESIGN: Data on alcohol intake were examined from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of distal colorectal cancer.

SETTING: This study encompassed 33 counties in the central and eastern part of North Carolina.

PATIENTS: Cases had adenocarcinoma of the rectum, rectosigmoid, and sigmoid colon. Controls were frequency-matched on age, race, and sex.

INTERVENTIONS: Demographic and dietary intake data were collected with use of a validated questionnaire.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for the relationship between alcohol consumption and distal colorectal cancer.

RESULTS: Included in the study were 1033 cases and 1011 controls. The odds ratio for rectal cancer comparing any vs no alcohol intake was 0.73 (95% CI 0.60, 0.90), adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, obesity, education, red meat intake, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and family history of colorectal cancer. The odds ratio for moderate alcohol (14 g/day) was 0.93 (95% CI 0.70, 1.23). Moderate beer and wine intakes were also inversely associated with distal colorectal cancer: odds ratios 0.76 (95% CI 0.60, 0.96) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.56, 0.86).

LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective, observational study. Residual confounding is possible.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, moderate alcohol intake (especially wine) was inversely associated with distal colorectal cancer.




06 May 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse.

METHODS:We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0-9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders.

RESULTS: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern.

CONCLUSION:Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 April 2011; doi (2011) 0, 000-000. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.106 www.bjcancer.com

06 May 2014 In Cancer

Background:Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between folate intake, circulating folate level and risk of breast cancer; however, the findings were inconsistent between the studies.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases updated to January, 2014 and performed the systematic review and meta-analysis of the published epidemiological studies to assess the associations between folate intake level, circulating folate level and the overall risk of breast cancer.

Results:In all, 16 eligible prospective studies with a total of 744 068 participants and 26 205 breast cancer patients and 26 case-control studies with a total of 16 826 cases and 21 820 controls that have evaluated the association between folate intake and breast cancer risk were identified. Pooled analysis of the prospective studies and case-control studies suggested a potential nonlinearity relationship for dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk.

Prospective studies indicated a U-shaped relationship for the dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Women with daily dietary folate intake between 153 and 400 mug showed a significant reduced breast cancer risk compared with those 400 mug. The case-control studies also suggested a significantly negative correlation between the dietary folate intake level and the breast cancer risk. Increased dietary folate intake reduced breast cancer risk for women with higher alcohol intake level, but not for those with lower alcohol intake. No significant association between circulating folate level and breast cancer risk was found when the results of 8 identified studies with 5924 participants were pooled.

Conclusions:Our studies suggested that folate may have preventive effects against breast cancer risk, especially for those with higher alcohol consumption level; however, the dose and timing are critical and more studies are warranted to further elucidate the questions.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.155 www.bjcancer.com




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