06 May 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Current research is inconclusive regarding the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. In this study, the authors examined the associations of total alcohol, type of alcoholic beverage, and drinking pattern with the risk of total, low-grade, and high-grade prostate cancer.

METHODS: Data for this study came from the 2129 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) who had cancer detected during the 7-year trial and 8791 men who were determined by biopsy to be free of cancer at the trial end. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations of alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk.

RESULTS: Associations of drinking with high-grade disease did not differ by treatment arm. In combined arms, heavy alcohol consumption (> or =50 g of alcohol daily) and regular heavy drinking (> or =4 drinks daily on > or =5 days per week) were associated with increased risks of high-grade prostate cancer (RR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.33-3.05] and 2.17 [95% CI, 1.42-3.30], respectively); less heavy drinking was not associated with risk. Associations of drinking with low-grade cancer differed by treatment arm. In the placebo arm, there was no association of drinking with risk of low-grade cancer. In the finasteride arm, drinking > or =50 g of alcohol daily was associated with an increased risk of low-grade disease (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39-2.56); this finding was because of a 43% reduction in the risk of low-grade cancer attributable to finasteride treatment in men who drank or =50 g of alcohol daily (P(interaction) = .03).

CONCLUSIONS: Heavy, daily drinking increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Heavy drinking made finasteride ineffective for reducing prostate cancer risk.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

Evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported the fact that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers. The relative risks are 3.2-9.2 for more than 60 g/day (or more than four drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response effect on the intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current alcoholics, a decreased risk of approximately 10 to 15 years is associated with alcohol cessation. Similar associations have been observed among nonsmokers in over 20 studies. In general, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increase in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure to alcohol and tobacco consumption show a greater than multiplicative synergistic effect.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased overall mortality, cancer, liver, and cardiovascular diseases; but low doses of alcohol (up to one drink per day) are not associated with the risk of any cancer site with the exception of breast cancer and possibly of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that moderate alcohol and specifically wine intake provides cardioprotection and neuroprotection and may increase longevity. Various experimental data hypothesize a potential cancer chemopreventive role of some grape extracts, and complete sequencing of the grapevine genome has revealed genes responsible for the synthesis of health-promoting compounds (resveratrol and other polyphenols), thus advocating the development of future potential nutraceutical strategies. This focuses on the pros and cons of moderate alcohol and wine consumption and opens a debate on this topic.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Both alcohol consumption and obesity have been linked with breast cancer morbidity and mortality. An inverse association between alcohol intake and obesity suggests possible confounding between these variables (and perhaps other factors) with breast cancer outcomes.

METHODS: Alcohol intake (beer, wine, spirits, and total) was examined in 3,088 women previously diagnosed and treated for breast cancer within an intervention trial that targeted vegetables, fiber, and fat but not alcohol or weight loss. Factors associated with baseline alcohol intake were included in Cox proportional hazards models for recurrence and mortality.

RESULTS: Alcohol intake was significantly associated with higher education and physical activity levels. Neither light alcohol intake nor obesity was significantly associated with breast cancer recurrence, but moderate alcohol intake >300 g/mo was protective against all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence intervals, 0.49-0.97) in a proportional hazards model adjusted for obesity. Obese women were 61% more likely to be nondrinkers than drinkers, and 76% more likely to be light drinkers than moderate/heavy drinkers. In nonobese women, alcohol intake >10 g/mo was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51-0.91).

CONCLUSION: Light alcohol intake, regardless of body weight, did not increase the risk of breast cancer recurrence or all-cause mortality in this cohort of middle-aged women previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Alcohol intake was associated with other favorable prognostic indicators, which may explain its apparent protective effect in nonobese women.

 

 

 

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