06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Alcohol consumption is postulated to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PCA), but clarification of degree of risk related to consumption characteristics is lacking. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and PCA in a population-based case-control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Population-based controls were frequency-matched by sex, age within 5-year categories and county of residence to cases identified by the cancer registry's rapid case ascertainment. Detailed alcohol consumption data, including binge drinking (>/=5 drinks/day), were collected during in-person interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using adjusted unconditional logistic regression. Depending on dose, duration, and pattern of drinking, ORs were increased 1.5- to 6-fold among men but not women. In men, ORs increased with increasing overall alcohol consumption (22-35 drinks/week OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.0; >/=35 drinks/week OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.1, p-trend = 0.04). Most notable were effects with a history of binge drinking (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.5) including increased number of drinks per day (p-trend = 0.002), and increased years of binge drinking (p-trend = 0.0006). In fully adjusted models that included smoking and other confounders, ORs for binge drinking in men were somewhat higher than in age-adjusted models. Results from our detailed analyses provide support for heavy alcohol consumption (including binge drinking) as a risk factor for PCA in men.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Current research is inconclusive regarding the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. In this study, the authors examined the associations of total alcohol, type of alcoholic beverage, and drinking pattern with the risk of total, low-grade, and high-grade prostate cancer.

METHODS: Data for this study came from the 2129 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) who had cancer detected during the 7-year trial and 8791 men who were determined by biopsy to be free of cancer at the trial end. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations of alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk.

RESULTS: Associations of drinking with high-grade disease did not differ by treatment arm. In combined arms, heavy alcohol consumption (> or =50 g of alcohol daily) and regular heavy drinking (> or =4 drinks daily on > or =5 days per week) were associated with increased risks of high-grade prostate cancer (RR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.33-3.05] and 2.17 [95% CI, 1.42-3.30], respectively); less heavy drinking was not associated with risk. Associations of drinking with low-grade cancer differed by treatment arm. In the placebo arm, there was no association of drinking with risk of low-grade cancer. In the finasteride arm, drinking > or =50 g of alcohol daily was associated with an increased risk of low-grade disease (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39-2.56); this finding was because of a 43% reduction in the risk of low-grade cancer attributable to finasteride treatment in men who drank or =50 g of alcohol daily (P(interaction) = .03).

CONCLUSIONS: Heavy, daily drinking increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Heavy drinking made finasteride ineffective for reducing prostate cancer risk.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

Evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported the fact that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers. The relative risks are 3.2-9.2 for more than 60 g/day (or more than four drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response effect on the intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current alcoholics, a decreased risk of approximately 10 to 15 years is associated with alcohol cessation. Similar associations have been observed among nonsmokers in over 20 studies. In general, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increase in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure to alcohol and tobacco consumption show a greater than multiplicative synergistic effect.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased overall mortality, cancer, liver, and cardiovascular diseases; but low doses of alcohol (up to one drink per day) are not associated with the risk of any cancer site with the exception of breast cancer and possibly of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that moderate alcohol and specifically wine intake provides cardioprotection and neuroprotection and may increase longevity. Various experimental data hypothesize a potential cancer chemopreventive role of some grape extracts, and complete sequencing of the grapevine genome has revealed genes responsible for the synthesis of health-promoting compounds (resveratrol and other polyphenols), thus advocating the development of future potential nutraceutical strategies. This focuses on the pros and cons of moderate alcohol and wine consumption and opens a debate on this topic.

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