06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: The incidence of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is increasing throughout the world. To date the increases have been proportionally greatest among young people. Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of lifestyle factors to the etiology of UADT cancers occurring in those aged less than 50 years.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 10 European countries. Cases were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, larynx and esophagus, and hospital or population controls were age and sex matched.

RESULTS: There were 356 cases younger than 50 years and 419 controls. Risk was strongly related to current smoking [odds ratio (OR) 5.5 95%; confidence interval (CI) (3.3, 9.2)], and risk increased with number of pack-years smoked. Risk was also related to alcohol consumption for both current (OR 1.8; 0.97, 3.3) and past (OR 3.4; 1.6, 7.4) drinkers, and risk increased with number of drink-years. Persons frequently consuming fruits and vegetables were at significantly reduced risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors already identified as being important for UADT cancers in adults are also important influences on risk in younger adults. The implication of these results is that the public health message in preventing UADT cancers remains the same to young and old alike.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVES: To examine the combined effect of alcohol and folate intake during adolescence on the risk of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD).

METHODS: We used data from 29 117 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who completed both adolescent alcohol consumption questions in 1989 and an adolescent diet questionnaire in 1998. A total of 659 women with proliferative BBD diagnosed between 1991 and 2001 were confirmed by central pathology review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for established risk factors of breast cancer.

RESULTS: Adolescent alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk of proliferative BBD (hazard ratio = 1.15 per 10 g/day consumption; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). There was no significant association between adolescent folate intake and the risk of proliferative BBD. Stratified analyses showed that each 10-g/day alcohol intake during adolescence was associated with a 21% (95% CI, 1.01-1.45) increase in the risk of proliferative BBD among women with low folate intake during adolescence, which was not significantly different from the alcohol-associated risk among women with moderate and high folate intake during adolescence (P for interaction = 0.18).

CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of proliferative BBD, which may not be reduced by increased folate intake during adolescence.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer.

METHODS: We used data from 91005 parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II who had no cancer history, completed questions on early alcohol consumption in 1989, and were followed through June 30, 2009, to analyze breast cancer risk. A subset of 60093 women who had no history of BBD or cancer in 1991 and were followed through June 30, 2001, were included in the analysis of proliferative BBD. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression.

RESULTS: We identified 1609 breast cancer cases and 970 proliferative BBD cases confirmed by central histology review. Alcohol consumption between menarche and first pregnancy, adjusted for drinking after first pregnancy, was associated with risks of breast cancer (RR = 1.11 per 10g/day intake; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.23) and proliferative BBD (RR = 1.16 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.32). Drinking after first pregnancy had a similar risk for breast cancer (RR = 1.09 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.23) but not for BBD. The association between drinking before first pregnancy and breast neoplasia appeared to be stronger with longer menarche to first pregnancy intervals.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption before first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of proliferative BBD and breast cancer.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVES: Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer is among the most frequent cancer and the most common death causes of cancer in the world. Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between alcohol drinking and UADT cancer mortality. However, no systematic review or meta-analysis has been reported up to now. To quantify the association between alcohol drinking and UADT cancer mortality, we performed this meta-analysis.

METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed and ISI Web of Science to identify all relevant epidemiological studies published before June 30, 2013. And the categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were used to evaluate the association between alcohol drinking and UADT cancer mortality.

RESULTS: Ten studies involving 2976 UADT cancer deaths were included. Compared with non/occasional drinkers, the pooled relative risks (RRs) of UADT cancer mortality were 2.01 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56-2.59] for any, 1.26 (95% CI=0.94-1.67) for light ( 12.5 g/day), 1.79 (95% CI=1.26-2.53) for moderate (12.6-49.9 g/day), and 3.63 (95% CI=2.63-5.00) for heavy ( 50 g/day) drinkers, respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that the increment in daily alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancer mortality continuously.

CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of a positive association between alcohol drinking and UADT cancer mortality, especially when alcohol consumption reaching moderate-to-heavy level. Thus, public health recommendation on UADT cancer prevention and control should consider limiting the intake of alcoholic beverages.




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