06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Alcohol consumption is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer in Western countries, but few epidemiologic data have been available in Japan. This population-based prospective cohort study evaluated the associations of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A total of 19,227 women aged 40-64 years were followed from 1990 to 2003. During 246,703 person-years of follow-up, 241 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by the Cox proportional-hazard regression model. After adjustment for potential risk factors of breast cancer and nutritional factors, the HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for current drinkers was 1.00 (0.74-1.34) compared with never drinkers. According to the amount of alcohol intake per day, a higher amount (>/=15.0 g/day) had no significant relation to breast cancer risk (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.40-1.91; P for trend = 0.85). Age upon starting to drink, and the frequency of drinking, were not associated with breast cancer risk. In analysis stratified according to exogenous female hormone use, a higher alcohol intake (>/=15.0 g/day) was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among hormone users (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 0.17-16.73); however, this was not statistically significant. Stratification according to folate intake with energy adjustment (<219, >/=219 mug/day) found that breast cancer risk tended to increase with increasing alcohol consumption among women with a low intake of folate (P for trend = 0.09). Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has no overall effect on breast cancer risk among Japanese women, whereas nutritional factors such as folate intake may modify the alcohol-breast cancer risk relationship.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Aim: Alcohol consumption increases the risk of liver cancer. However, there is still controversy regarding alcohol consumption and the risk of extrahepatic bile system cancer (EBSC). We performed a meta-analysis to provide an overview of the relevant studies and gain more robust estimates of the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of EBSC. Methods: Relevant studies published between January 1966 and October 2010 were identified by searching Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Studies were selected using a priori defined criteria. The strength of the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of EBSC was assessed by adjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: A total of 113 767 participants from 10 studies (nine case-control studies and one cohort study) were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided adjusted overall OR estimates for drinkers versus non-/low drinkers, leading to a pooled adjusted OR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.94, P for heterogeneity = 0.194, I(2) = 27.2%). The overall adjusted OR of hospital-based studies and population-based studies were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65-0.99, P = 0.260) and 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98, P = 0.119), respectively. For the heavy drinkers, the adjusted OR significance increased to 1.58 (95% CI = 0.97-2.57, P for heterogeneity = 0.055, I(2) = 65.4%), but it had no statistical significance. Conclusion: There is evidence that moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of EBSC compared with non-/low alcohol consumption, but not heavy alcohol consumption. Further multicenter and better controlled studies are required to confirm these findings.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND/AIM: The association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer is not clear. This study investigates different prediagnostic measurements of alcohol consumption, a laboratory marker (gamma-glutamyltransferase; gamma-GT), and a score measuring alcohol addiction (Mm-MAST), in relation to the risk of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption interact with each other, or if the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with these factors is modified by obesity or weight gain. METHODS: A cohort of 33,346 subjects provided prediagnostic information on the above factors. During a mean follow-up of 22.1 years, 183 cases of pancreatic cancer occurred. Cox's analysis yielded relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The highest gamma-GT quartile was associated with a high risk of pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.34-3.44), and this association was even stronger in subjects that reported a previous weight gain (RR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.29-10.09). A high Mm-MAST score was also associated with pancreatic cancer (p = 0.02). Current smoking was associated with pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.60-3.43), and obese smokers had an even higher risk (RR = 7.45, 95% CI = 1.65-33.64). CONCLUSION: High alcohol intake is associated with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer and this risk may be higher following weight gain. The risk associated with smoking may be even higher in obese subjects.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an inconsistent relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of all cancer mortality. As far as we know, no meta-analysis has been conducted to explore this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a PubMed search to find relevant articles published before April 2012 in English. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted to identify the impact of alcohol drinking on all cancer mortality. Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression and stratification analyses. Sensitivity and cumulative meta-analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: Eighteen independent cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared with non/occasional drinkers, the pooled relative risks (RRs) were 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.94] for light, 1.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) for moderate, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.23-1.39) for heavy drinkers. Former drinkers presented a higher risk (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.50) than current drinkers (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.16). There was a J-shaped relationship between all cancer mortality and alcohol consumption in males but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms the health hazards of heavy drinking (>/=50 g/day) and benefits of light drinking (</=12.5 g/day). Large-sample, well-designed, prospective epidemiological studies, especially on heavy drinking among women, should be developed in future.

 

 

 

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