06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: We reviewed epidemiological studies on alcohol drinking and breast cancer among the Japanese population. This report is one among a series of articles by our research group evaluating the existing evidence concerning the association between health-related lifestyles and cancer.

METHODS: Original data were obtained from MEDLINE searches using PubMed or from searches of the Ichushi database, complemented with manual searches. Evaluation of associations was based on the strength of evidence and the magnitude of association, together with biological plausibility as previously evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

RESULTS: Three cohort studies and eight case-control studies were identified. There were inconsistent results regarding alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk among cohort studies. A significant positive association was observed in one, but another showed nonsignificant inverse association. Out of the eight case-control studies, two studies showed a significantly increased risk among women who drink daily and who had higher intake of alcohol, respectively. Experimental studies have supported the biological plausibility of a positive association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that epidemiologic evidence on the association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk remains insufficient in terms of both the number and methodological quality of studies among the Japanese population.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




PURPOSE: Given the high cost and side effects of radioprotective agents such as amifostine, attention has been focused on potentially equally effective but less expensive and toxic natural substances. We evaluated the potential radioprotective effects of wine in preventing skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Before treatment, the medical history and habits of patients were assessed and the information recorded in their clinical folders. Patients were divided into three groups based on the dose/fractionation scheme used: control group, 60.4 Gy (standard technique); Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy in Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (MARA)-1 protocol group, 44 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed); and MARA-2 protocol group, 60 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed). The impact of the following variables on acute skin toxicity was evaluated by chart review: radiotherapy protocol, planning target volume (PTV), comorbidity (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), hemoglobin level before therapy, adjuvant hormone therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and drinking habits.

RESULTS: The study population consisted of 348 patients. More severe skin toxicity was significantly associated with the radiotherapy protocol (p < 0.001) and median PTV (p = 0.005). In addition, the incidence of acute toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was higher in patients without alcohol intake (38.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.021). The daily amount of alcohol intake also influenced the incidence of skin toxicity, with an incidence of 38.4% in patients with no wine intake, 31.8% in patients drinking half a glass per day, 13.6% in patients drinking one glass per day, and 35.0% in patients drinking two glasses per day. Multivariate analysis showed that wine intake, PTV, and radiotherapy protocol were all significantly correlated with acute toxicity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that wine may have a radioprotective effect; however, prospective studies are needed to confirm this beneficial effect of wine and its components.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality [upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and liver)] in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets, including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30-74 years in 13 European populations [Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland]. Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative [Relative index of inequality (RII)] and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII's were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29-36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17-23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5-15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to bladder cancer risk. A meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies was conducted to pool the risk estimates of the association between alcohol intake and bladder cancer.

METHODS: Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. We analyzed abstracted data with random effects models to obtain the summary risk estimates. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for a series of exposure levels.

RESULTS: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. No association with bladder cancer was observed in either overall alcohol intake group (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.10) or subgroups stratified by sex, study design, geographical region, or smoking status. However, in the analysis by specific beverages, both beer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.96) and wine (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.00) consumption exhibited a negative dose-response relationship with bladder cancer.

CONCLUSION: The overall current literature on alcohol consumption and the risk of bladder cancer suggested no association, while the consumption of beer and wine was associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer. Further efforts should be made to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying biological mechanisms.




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