06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Aim: Alcohol consumption increases the risk of liver cancer. However, there is still controversy regarding alcohol consumption and the risk of extrahepatic bile system cancer (EBSC). We performed a meta-analysis to provide an overview of the relevant studies and gain more robust estimates of the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of EBSC. Methods: Relevant studies published between January 1966 and October 2010 were identified by searching Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Studies were selected using a priori defined criteria. The strength of the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of EBSC was assessed by adjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: A total of 113 767 participants from 10 studies (nine case-control studies and one cohort study) were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided adjusted overall OR estimates for drinkers versus non-/low drinkers, leading to a pooled adjusted OR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.94, P for heterogeneity = 0.194, I(2) = 27.2%). The overall adjusted OR of hospital-based studies and population-based studies were 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65-0.99, P = 0.260) and 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98, P = 0.119), respectively. For the heavy drinkers, the adjusted OR significance increased to 1.58 (95% CI = 0.97-2.57, P for heterogeneity = 0.055, I(2) = 65.4%), but it had no statistical significance. Conclusion: There is evidence that moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of EBSC compared with non-/low alcohol consumption, but not heavy alcohol consumption. Further multicenter and better controlled studies are required to confirm these findings.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND/AIM: The association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer is not clear. This study investigates different prediagnostic measurements of alcohol consumption, a laboratory marker (gamma-glutamyltransferase; gamma-GT), and a score measuring alcohol addiction (Mm-MAST), in relation to the risk of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption interact with each other, or if the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with these factors is modified by obesity or weight gain. METHODS: A cohort of 33,346 subjects provided prediagnostic information on the above factors. During a mean follow-up of 22.1 years, 183 cases of pancreatic cancer occurred. Cox's analysis yielded relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The highest gamma-GT quartile was associated with a high risk of pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.34-3.44), and this association was even stronger in subjects that reported a previous weight gain (RR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.29-10.09). A high Mm-MAST score was also associated with pancreatic cancer (p = 0.02). Current smoking was associated with pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.60-3.43), and obese smokers had an even higher risk (RR = 7.45, 95% CI = 1.65-33.64). CONCLUSION: High alcohol intake is associated with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer and this risk may be higher following weight gain. The risk associated with smoking may be even higher in obese subjects.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an inconsistent relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of all cancer mortality. As far as we know, no meta-analysis has been conducted to explore this issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a PubMed search to find relevant articles published before April 2012 in English. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted to identify the impact of alcohol drinking on all cancer mortality. Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression and stratification analyses. Sensitivity and cumulative meta-analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: Eighteen independent cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared with non/occasional drinkers, the pooled relative risks (RRs) were 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.94] for light, 1.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.06) for moderate, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.23-1.39) for heavy drinkers. Former drinkers presented a higher risk (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.50) than current drinkers (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.16). There was a J-shaped relationship between all cancer mortality and alcohol consumption in males but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms the health hazards of heavy drinking (>/=50 g/day) and benefits of light drinking (</=12.5 g/day). Large-sample, well-designed, prospective epidemiological studies, especially on heavy drinking among women, should be developed in future.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

The role of alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis is still unclear, with conflicting evidence from different studies. We investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer, and the potential interaction between alcohol consumption and other exposures. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, 1,586 pairs of cases and their matched neighborhood controls were interviewed. Data were analyzed to determine whether bladder cancer risk differs by alcohol consumption, and whether different alcoholic beverages have different effects. The risk of bladder cancer decreased with increasing frequency (p for trend = 0.003) and duration of alcohol consumption (p for trend = 0.017). Subjects who drank more than 4 drinks per day had a 32% lower (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.90) risk of bladder cancer than those who never drank any alcoholic beverage. Beer (p for trend = 0.002) and wine (p for trend = 0.054) consumption were associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer, while hard liquor was not. The reduction in risk was mostly seen among shorter-term smokers who urinated frequently. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer. The effect was modified by the type of alcoholic beverage, cigarette smoking and frequency of urination.

 

 

 

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