06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Background Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. This association is thought to be largely hormonally driven, so alcohol use may be more strongly associated with hormonally sensitive breast cancers. Few studies have evaluated how alcohol-related risk varies by breast cancer subtype. Methods We assessed the relationship between self-reported alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer risk among 87 724 women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort from 1993 through 1998. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 2944 invasive breast cancer patients were diagnosed during follow-up through September 15, 2005. In multivariable adjusted analyses, alcohol consumption was positively related to risk of invasive breast cancer overall, invasive lobular carcinoma, and hormone receptor-positive tumors (all P(trend) </= .022). However, alcohol consumption was more strongly related to risk of certain types of invasive breast cancer compared with others. Compared with never drinkers, women who consumed seven or more alcoholic beverages per week had an almost twofold increased risk of hormone receptor-positive invasive lobular carcinoma (HR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.81) but not a statistically significant increased risk of hormone receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinoma (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.50; difference in HRs per drink per day among current drinkers = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.32, P = .042). The absolute rates of hormone receptor-positive lobular cancer among never drinkers and current drinkers were, 5.2 and 8.5 per 10 000 person-years, respectively, whereas for hormne receptor-positive ductal cancer they were 15.2 and 17.9 per 10 000 person-years, respectively. Conclusions Alcohol use may be more strongly associated with risk of hormone-sensitive breast cancers than hormone-insensitive subtypes, suggesting distinct etiologic pathways for these two breast cancer subtypes.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests associations of lower alcohol intake and higher tobacco consumption with increased risks of haematological malignancy. The prospective Million Women Study provides sufficient power for reliable estimates of subtype-specific associations in women. METHODS: Approximately 1.3 million middle-aged women were recruited in the United Kingdom during 1996-2001 and followed for death, emigration and cancer registration until 2009 (mean 10.3 years per woman); potential risk factors were assessed by questionnaire. Adjusted relative risks were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During follow-up, 9162 incident cases of haematological malignancy were recorded, including 7047 lymphoid and 2072 myeloid cancers. Among predominantly moderate alcohol drinkers, higher intake was associated with lower risk of lymphoid malignancies, in particular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk 0.85 per 10 g alcohol per day (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96)), follicular lymphoma (0.86 (0.76-0.98)) and plasma cell neoplasms (0.86 (0.77-0.96)). Among never- and current smokers, higher cigarette consumption was associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (1.45 per 10 cigarettes per day (1.22-1.72)), mature T-cell malignancies (1.38 (1.10-1.73)) and myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease (1.42 (1.31-1.55)). CONCLUSION: These findings confirm and extend existing evidence for associations of subtypes of haematological malignancy with two common exposures in women.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing sharply in Korea, and evidence has suggested the role of dietary methyl supply and related polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between folate and alcohol intake, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CRC risk in Koreans. DESIGN: A total of 787 cases and 656 controls were recruited from 2 university hospitals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: MTHFR 677T homozygotes were at a lower risk of CRC (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.78 for TT compared with CC/CT). High folate intake was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.84 for high compared with low intake), and high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.46 for high compared with low intake). When data were stratified by the amount of dietary methyl (combined intake of folate and alcohol), those with low-methyl diets had higher risk of CRC (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.56) than did those with high-methyl diets among CC/CT carriers, whereas the amount of dietary methyl did not affect the CRC risk among carriers with the TT homozygous variant. This association was stronger in patients with colon cancer than in patients with rectal cancer. CONCLUSION: We found that the effect of dietary methyl supply on colorectal carcinogenesis may differ according to MTHFR C677T genotype and the subsite of origin in a Korean population.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

The alcohol-breast cancer association has been established using alcohol intake measurements from Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ). For some nutrients diet diary measurements are more highly correlated with true intake compared with FFQ measurements, but it is unknown whether this is true for alcohol. A case-control study (656 breast cancer cases, 1905 matched controls) was sampled from four cohorts in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. Alcohol intake was measured prospectively using FFQs and 4- or 7-day diet diaries. Both relied on fixed portion sizes allocated to given beverage types, but those used to obtain FFQ measurements were lower. FFQ measurements were therefore on average lower and to enable fair comparison the FFQ was "calibrated" using diet diary portion sizes. Diet diaries gave more zero measurements, demonstrating the challenge of distinguishing never-from episodic-consumers using short term instruments. To use all information, two combined measurements were calculated. The first is an average of the two measurements with special treatment of zeros. The second is the expected true intake given both measurements, calculated using a measurement error model. After confounder adjustment the odds ratio (OR) per 10 g/day of alcohol intake was 1.05 (95 % CI 0.98, 1.13) using diet diaries, and 1.13 (1.02, 1.24) using FFQs. The calibrated FFQ measurement and combined measurements 1 and 2 gave ORs 1.10 (1.03, 1.18), 1.09 (1.01, 1.18), 1.09 (0.99,1.20), respectively. The association was modified by HRT use, being stronger among users versus non-users. In summary, using an alcohol measurement from a diet diary at one time point gave attenuated associations compared with FFQ.

 

 

 

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