06 May 2014 In Cancer




Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the effect of modest alcohol consumption or of particular types of beverages on CRC risk remains unclear. We examined whether consumption of total alcohol or specific types of alcoholic beverages relate to overall or site-specific CRC risk in a prospective population study of 24,244 participants and 407 incident CRC cases after 11 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Consumption of specific alcoholic beverages at baseline was collected using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with CRC risk before or after adjustment for age, sex, weight, height, and smoking status (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.51-1.26 for alcohol consumption of > or =21 units/week compared with non-drinkers), and further adjustment for education level, exercise, family history of CRC, and dietary factors did not significantly alter the risk estimates (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.44-1.13). No significant associations were observed between consumption of specific alcoholic beverages (beer, sherry, or spirits) and CRC risk when compared with non-drinkers after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. Daily consumption of > or =1 unit of wine appeared inversely related to CRC risk (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40-0.94). No evidence was found for sex-specific relationships, and further exclusion of cases incident within 3 years of baseline did not change the associations observed. In this population-based UK cohort, we did not find any significant adverse effect of alcohol over the moderate range of intake on colorectal cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent.

METHODS: We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).

RESULTS: Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0-/=45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results.

CONCLUSION: We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




PURPOSE: Alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer survival is less clear.Patients And methodsWe assessed pre- and postdiagnostic alcohol intake in a cohort of 22,890 women with incident invasive breast cancer who were residents of Wisconsin, Massachusetts, or New Hampshire and diagnosed from 1985 to 2006 at ages 20 to 79 years. All women reported on prediagnostic intake; a subsample of 4,881 reported on postdiagnostic intake.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.3 years from diagnosis, 7,780 deaths occurred, including 3,484 resulting from breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were estimated. Based on a quadratic analysis, moderate alcohol consumption before diagnosis was modestly associated with disease-specific survival (compared with nondrinkers, HR = 0.93 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.02], 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.02], and 0.89 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.04] for two or more, three to six, seven to nine, and >/= 10 drinks/wk, respectively). Alcohol consumption after diagnosis was not associated with disease-specific survival (compared with nondrinkers, HR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61 to 1.27], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.49 to 1.32], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.87], and 0.83 [95% CI, 0.45 to 1.54] for two or more, three to six, seven to nine, and >/= 10 drinks/wk, respectively). Results did not vary by beverage type. Women consuming moderate levels of alcohol, either before or after diagnosis, experienced better cardiovascular and overall survival than nondrinkers.

CONCLUSION: Overall alcohol consumption before diagnosis was not associated with disease-specific survival, but we found a suggestion favoring moderate consumption. There was no evidence for an association with postdiagnosis alcohol intake and breast cancer survival. This study, however, does provide support for a benefit of limited alcohol intake for cardiovascular and overall survival in women with breast cancer.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the risk of colorectal cancer according to folic acid fortification period in the United States.

METHODS: We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer by fortification period (before 1998 vs. after 1998) in 2 prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) of women and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) of men, in which 2793 cases of invasive colorectal cancer were documented.

RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Among nonusers of multivitamins and/or folic acid supplements, the pooled multivariate relative risk for >/=30 g/d drinkers versus nondrinkers was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.09-1.70; P for trend, 0.02). The effect of alcohol consumption was slightly stronger in the prefolic acid fortification period (1980 NHS/1986 HPFS-1998) than in the postfortification period (1998-2008); the pooled multivariate relative risks for >/=30 g/d drinkers versus nondrinkers were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.00-1.71; P for trend, 0.10) in the prefortification period and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.69-1.65; P for trend, 0.67) in the postfortification period.

CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid fortification may attenuate the adverse effect of high alcohol consumption on the risk of colorectal cancer.




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