06 May 2014 In Cancer
Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI
06 May 2014 In Cancer




Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. While alcohol intake has been associated with increased breast cancer risk, the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is not clear. We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density among women who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2004. Mammographic density was assessed on digitized mammograms from 2,251 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years, using a computer assisted method. Current intake of beer, wine (red and white), and liquor was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Non-drinkers were defined as complete abstainers (i.e., those who reported no intake of any type of alcohol). We used multivariate linear regression models to estimate least square means of percent mammographic density by categories of alcohol intake with adjustment for potential confounders. We also checked for possible effect modification by stratifying the analyses by age, body mass index, and hormone therapy. The mean percent mammographic density was almost similar for drinkers 18.3% (95% CI: 17.6-18.9%) and non-drinkers 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1-19.4%) (P = 0.59). There was no indication that amount of alcohol consumed was associated with percent mammographic density, with a mean percent density among women with the highest intake (>90 g of alcohol per week) of 18.2% (95% CI: 16.9-19.0%), only slightly different from that of non-drinkers 18.3% (17.3-19.6%) (P for trend = 0.99). There was no association between any type of alcohol consumed and mammographic density.There was no effect modification by body mass index, age, or hormone therapy use. We found no evidence of an association between alcohol intake and percent mammographic density.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




The first behavioral aspect of mankind that has been commonly acknowledged as one of the main reasons for neoplasms is lifestyle. The specified lifestyle determines the exposure to the variety of carcinogens, whose crucial role in carcinogenesis is doubtless. The purpose of this study was to analyze women's lifestyle and its influence on the risk of developing breast cancer and benign tumors. The participants of the study were healthy women with no changes in mammary glands and women with diagnosed breast cancer or benign tumor. The total number of participants was 555 females aged 35-70 years. Every patient voluntarily filled in an anonymous questionnaire consisting of questions about socioeconomic conditions, number of cigarettes/daily, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Proper education concerning a healthy lifestyle can positively contribute to a reduction in breast cancer. A high value of BMI, especially in the postmenopausal period, is a negative predictive factor increasing the risk of breast cancer. Physical activity decreases the risk of breast cancer. No such relation concerning smoking cigarettes has been proven.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




PURPOSE: While some studies have indicated that alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia, others have not. We evaluated associations of alcohol consumption with benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary tract symptoms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of published studies pertaining to alcohol intake, benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. We analyzed abstracted data with random effects models to obtain pooled odds ratios of adjusted effects estimates.

RESULTS: A total of 19 studies (120,091 men) met selection criteria and of these studies 14 revealed a significantly decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia or lower urinary tract symptoms with increased alcohol intake. Sixteen studies were eligible for pooled analyses, of which 12 used benign prostatic hyperplasia as the primary outcome. We stratified total alcohol intake by gm per day into 6 strata. Alcohol intake was associated with a significantly or marginally significantly decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia in all 6 strata (p values 0.08, 0.01, <0.001, 0.02, 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Compared to no alcohol intake, an alcohol intake of 36 gm daily or greater was associated with a 35% decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, p <0.001). Of the 4 studies that used lower urinary tract symptoms as the primary outcome 3 demonstrated a significantly increased likelihood of lower urinary tract symptoms with alcohol consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia but not of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which alcohol modifies the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.




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