06 May 2014 In General Health




PURPOSE: To assess whether alcohol consumption is associated with the long-term incidence of cataract or cataract surgery. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 3654 persons aged 49+ years were examined at baseline and 2564 were re-examined after 5 and/or 10 years. Lens photographs were taken at each visit and assessed using the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System by masked graders. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between alcohol consumption and long-term risk of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract. However, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, diabetes, myopia, socioeconomic status, and steroid use, total alcohol consumption of over 2 standard drinks per day was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of cataract surgery, when compared to total daily alcohol consumption of 1 to 2 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.81). Abstinence from alcohol was also associated with increased likelihood of cataract surgery when compared to a total alcohol consumption of 1 to 2 standard drinks per day (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.25-4.46). CONCLUSION: A U-shaped association of alcohol consumption with the long-term risk of cataract surgery was found in this older cohort: moderate consumption was associated with 50% lower cataract surgery incidence, compared either to abstinence or heavy alcohol consumption.




06 May 2014 In General Health




Animal studies routinely demonstrate an alcohol (ETOH) -mediated increase in survival after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent clinical studies also suggest ETOH plays a neuroprotective role in moderate to severe TBI. We sought to investigate the relationship between ETOH and outcomes in patients with moderate to severe TBI using a countywide database. The Los Angeles County Trauma System database was queried for all adult (older than 14 years) patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI trauma (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] 3 or greater, all other AIS 3 or less) who had ETOH levels measured on admission between 1998 and 2005. A total of 7304 patients were evaluated with 3219 (44.1%) patients testing positive for serum ETOH. ETOH-positive patients with TBI had a significantly lower mortality rate compared with ETOH negative patients (8.5 vs. 10.5%, P = 0.005). Even after logistic regression analysis, a positive ETOH was associated with reduced mortality (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99, P = 0.035). Therefore, a positive serum ETOH level was independently associated with significantly improved survival in patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI. The neuroprotective role ETOH plays in TBI is in contrast to previous findings and deserves further attention as a potential therapeutic.




06 May 2014 In Diabetes

Aims: Alcohol is a potential risk factor of Type 2 diabetes. However, more detailed information on effects of alcohol types and early phases of Type 2 diabetes development seems warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of alcohol consumption and specific alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men and women.

Methods: Subjects, who at baseline had normal glucose tolerance (2070 men and 3058 women) or pre-diabetes (70 men and 41 women), aged 35-56 years, were evaluated in this cohort study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)] to develop pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes at 8-10 years follow-up, in relation to self-reported alcohol intake at baseline. Adjustment was performed for several risk factors.

Results: Total alcohol consumption and binge drinking increased the risk of pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in men (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.50, respectively), while low consumption decreased diabetes risk in women (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.79). Men showed higher risk of pre-diabetes with high beer consumption (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.01) and of Type 2 diabetes with high consumption of spirits (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.27-3.24). Women showed a reduced risk of pre-diabetes with high wine intake (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and of Type 2 diabetes with medium intake of both wine and spirits (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.97, respectively), whereas high consumption of spirits increased the pre-diabetes risk(OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.47-3.96).

Conclusion: High alcohol consumption increases the risk of abnormal glucose regulation in men. In women the associations are more complex: decreased risk with low or medium intake and increased risk with high alcohol intake.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Recent studies on the protection afforded by moderate wine consumption against cardiovascular diseases have focused mainly on the activity of red wine in view of its high content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols. White wine lacks polyphenols, but it contains other compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid) and monophenols (tyrosol), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of white wine in myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. The experimental rats were gavaged with white wine (Soave Suavia "Le Rive" 2004) at a dosage of 6.5 mL/(kg.rat.day) for 30 days. Rats were divided into four groups: control sham (CS), wine-treated sham (WS), control ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) (CIR), and wine + IR (WIR). All the rats in both IR groups underwent 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 8, 24 h, and 30 days of reperfusion (R). Significant reduction in infarct size (21 vs 39%, n = 6), cardiomyocyte (274 vs 384 counts/100 HPF, n = 6), and endothelial cell apoptosis (387 vs 587 counts/100 HPF) was observed in WIR as compared with CIR after 24 h of reperfusion. Echocardiography demonstrated significant increased fractional shortening (32 vs 22%) and ejection fraction (60 vs 44%) following 30 days of reperfusion in WIR rats compared to CIR ( n = 6). In addition, increased phosphorylation of AKT, Foxo3a, and eNOS were found in WS and WIR, as compared to their respective controls. The gel-shift analysis demonstrated significant upregulation of DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in the white wine-treated groups. This report demonstrated for the first time that the white wine mediated cardioprotection in ischemic reperfused myocardium is through the PI-3kinase/Akt/FOXO3a/e-NOS/NF-kappaB survival pathway.

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