15 October 2014 In Dementia

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with cognitive impairment in older men as predicted by mendelian randomization.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort study of 3,542 community-dwelling men aged 65 to 83 years followed for 6 years. Cognitive impairment was established by a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 23 or less. Participants provided detailed information about their use of alcohol during the preceding year and were classified as abstainers, occasional drinkers, and regular drinkers: mild (/=35 drinks/wk). We genotyped the rs1229984 G-->A variant of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, which is associated with lower prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence. Other measures included age, education, marital status, smoking and physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases.

RESULTS: At study entry, rs1229984 G-->A polymorphism was associated with lower prevalence of regular use of alcohol and decreased consumption among regular users. Six years later, 502 men (14.2%) showed evidence of cognitive impairment. Abstainers and irregular drinkers had higher odds of cognitive impairment than regular drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.51, after adjustment for other measured factors). The rs1229984 G-->A polymorphism did not decrease the odds of cognitive impairment (AA/GG OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.29-6.27; GA/GG OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.71-1.55).

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption, including heavy regular drinking and abuse, is not a direct cause of cognitive impairment in later life. Our results are consistent with the possibility, but do not prove, that regular moderate drinking decreases the risk of cognitive impairment in older men.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

 

 

 

The inverse association between alcohol intake and coronary heart disease has been consistently reported in cross-culture, case-control, and cohort studies. Over the past couple of decades, however, many studies have explained promising health benefits associated with wine consumption. Some studies suggest that red wine is more cardioprotective than white wine, possibly due to the increased content of flavanoid antioxidants found in red wine. Several experimental studies, including ours, support the evidence that these beneficial effects are due to resveratrol, the polyphenolic compound present in red wine. Many studies have provided evidence that resveratrol possesses antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects apart from activation of longevity proteins (such as SIRT-1). We have recently reported the angiogenic, antihypercholesterolemic, and antidiabetic effects of resveratrol and the mechanisms involved in reduced ventricular remodeling and increased cardiac functions. We have also shown different strategic target molecules involved in resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection. Therefore, this review discusses the potential effect of resveratrol and the mechanisms involved in resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection during myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes rendering its beneficial effects during health and disease.

 

 

 

The traffic accidents became the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young population groups during the late 60s and early 70s. Among several European countries that are in transition, Bosnia and Herzegovina takes the leading place in fatal traffic accidents. In this study we have investigated knowledge, attitudes and behavior of young people related to alcohol impaired driving. Our aim was to investigate the patterns and behavior among young people that could be useful for public health intervention among them. This is of special interest as there is a lack of such information from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study was performed in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 189 examinees of both genders, aged between 18 and 24 years, who have been divided in two groups: students of the University of Mostar and those who did not go for further education after high school (nonstudents). Sampling was performed in July 2006 in Mostar and surrounding area. The Gallup organization questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistic test and chi-square were used in statistical analysis. Result of this study could be helpful in taking preventive measures for lowering number of traffic accidents among young people or they could be base in some protective programs for increasing traffic safety.

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: The effect of different alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour on the risk of acute pancreatitis has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of alcoholic beverage in causing acute pancreatitis. METHODS: A follow-up study was conducted, using the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men, to study the association between consumption of spirits, wine and beer and the risk of acute pancreatitis. No patient with a history of chronic pancreatitis was included and those who developed pancreatic cancer during follow-up were excluded. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios. RESULTS: In total, 84 601 individuals, aged 46-84 years, were followed for a median of 10 years, of whom 513 developed acute pancreatitis. There was a dose-response association between the amount of spirits consumed on a single occasion and the risk of acute pancreatitis. After multivariable adjustments, there was a 52 per cent (risk ratio 1.52, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.12 to 2.06) increased risk of acute pancreatitis for every increment of five standard drinks of spirits consumed on a single occasion. The association weakened slightly when those with gallstone-related pancreatitis were excluded. There was no association between consumption of wine or beer, frequency of alcoholic beverage consumption including spirits, or average total monthly consumption of alcohol (ethanol) and the risk of acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: The risk of acute pancreatitis was associated with the amount of spirits consumed on a single occasion but not with wine or beer consumption.

 

 

 

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