22 March 2016 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic index (CMI), calculated as a product of waist-to-height ratio and triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, is a new index for discriminating diabetes mellitus. Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are prone to have other atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between CMI and indicators of atherosclerotic progression in patients with PAD.

METHODS: The subjects were 63 outpatients with PAD. Relationships of CMI with variables related to atherosclerotic progression were investigated using multivariate linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, sex and histories of smoking and alcohol drinking.

RESULTS: Log-transformed CMI was significantly correlated with mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT) (standardized regression coefficient: 0.350, p < 0.01) and % decrease in ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABI) after treadmill exercise (standardized regression coefficient: 0.365, p < 0.01). Mean IMT and % decrease in ABI by treadmill exercise were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the group of the 3rd tertile for CMI than in the group of its 1st tertile (mean +/- SE: mean IMT (mm), 0.94 +/- 0.06 (1st tertile) vs. 0.94 +/- 0.06 (2nd tertile) vs. 1.19 +/- 0.06 (3rd tertile); % decrease in ABI, 14.1 +/- 3.4 [1st tertile] vs. 26.0 +/- 3.5 [2nd tertile] vs. 30.0 +/- 3.5 [3rd tertile]).

CONCLUSION: CMI was shown to be associated with the degrees of atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery and ischemia in leg arteries and is therefore a useful discriminator of atherosclerotic progression in patients with PAD.

16 October 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer aetiology may differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Associations of alcohol and folate intakes with risk of breast cancer defined by ER status were examined in pooled analyses of the primary data from 20 cohorts.

METHODS: During a maximum of 6-18 years of follow-up of 1 089 273 women, 21 624 ER+ and 5113 ER- breast cancers were identified. Study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and then combined using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of ER+ and ER- breast cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing >/= 30 g/d with 0 g/day of alcohol consumption were 1.35 (1.23-1.48) for ER+ and 1.28 (1.10-1.49) for ER- breast cancer (Ptrend /= 0.26). Dietary (from foods only) and total folate intakes were not associated with risk of overall, ER+ and ER- breast cancer; pooled multivariable RRs ranged from 0.98 to 1.02 comparing extreme quintiles. Following-up US studies through only the period before mandatory folic acid fortification did not change the results. The alcohol and folate associations did not vary by tumour subtypes defined by progesterone receptor status.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer, even among women with high folate intake. Folate intake was not associated with breast cancer risk.

17 September 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.

METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

28 August 2015 In Cancer

OBJECT: In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies.

METHOD: Two cohort and 22 case-control studies presenting results for at least three categories of alcohol intake were identified from a PubMed search of articles published before July 2014. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta regression were performed for modeling the dose-response relation.

RESULT: The pooled relative risk (RR) for any alcohol intake compared with non/occasional drinking was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.17]. The RRs were 1.07 (95% CI, 1.02-1.13), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.26-1.49) for light (/=50 g/day), respectively. The risks were consistent in the subgroup analyses of sex and tumor site.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk.

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