26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that red wine has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this work if resveratrol content in red wine increases SHBG levels is explored.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A pilot study aims at testing the effect of drinking for 14 days two types of red wine with different resveratrol content is conducted in 26 healthy volunteers. SHBG levels and several biochemical parameters are measured at the beginning and the end of every period. Results show that consumption of both wines does not change body mass index or biochemical markers of liver injury. The low resveratrol wine does not modify the lipid profile or SHBG levels. By contrast, red wine with high resveratrol content significantly reduces total cholesterol in both men and women. Finally, red wine with high resveratrol content increases circulating SHBG in women but not in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Red wine rich in resveratrol reduces total cholesterol in men and women and increases SHBG only in women. Further research aims at investigating the potential SHBG role enhancement mediated by resveratrol regarding cardiovascular protection that presents women in comparison with men seems warranted.

26 November 2015 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The effect of alcohol consumption on prostate health and reproductive hormone profiles has long been investigated and currently, no consensus has been reached. Additionally, large studies focusing on this topic are relatively rare in China.

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of alcohol consumption with prostate measurements and reproductive hormone profiles in Chinese population; and to examine the relationship between hormone levels and prostate measurements.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4535 men from four representative provinces of China. Demographic details, family history of prostate disease, tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) were collected through a questionnaire. Total prostate specific antingen (total PSA), free PSA, free PSA/total PSA ratio (f/tPSA), and reproductive hormones were measured in serum. Multi-variable regression models were used to test for association of alcohol consumption with markers of prostate health, used to test for association of alcohol consumption with reproductive hormones, and reproductive hormones with markers of prostate health.

RESULTS: Alcohol consumption had no obvious impact on total PSA concentration and I-PSS. Current drinkers had lower level of free PSA (beta = -0.11, p = 0.02) and f/tPSA (beta = -0.03, p = 0.005), former drinkers also had lower level of free PSA (beta = -0.19, p = 0.02) when compared with never drinkers. Lower Luteinizing hormone (LH) (beta = -1.05, p = 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (beta = -4.71, p = 0.01) and higher estradiol (beta = 7.81, p = 0.01) was found in current drinkers than never drinkers, whereas higher LH (beta = 1.04, p = 0.04) and free testosterone (FT) (beta = 0.03, p = 0.02) was detected in former drinkers than never drinkers. Furthermore, LH was positively associated with f/tPSA (beta = 0.002, p = 0.006), SHBG was also positively related with free PSA (beta = 0.003, p = 0.003) and f/tPSA (beta = 0.0004, p = 0.01). Both total testosterone (TT) and FT were inversely related with I-PSS (OR = 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; OR = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.11-0.45, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption could affect serum free PSA concentration and also f/tPSA ratio, and also acts as an endocrine disruptor on the male reproductive hormone profiles. LH and SHBG were positively related with fPSA and f/tPSA, and higher level of TT and FT may be helpful for improving participants' subjective symptoms.

15 June 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations.

DESIGN: This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber intake was statistically significant for prostate cancer (P = 0.01) but not for overall hormone-dependent (P = 0.2) or breast (P = 0.9) cancer.

CONCLUSION: In line with mechanistic hypotheses and experimental data, this prospective study suggested that dietary fiber intake might modulate the association between alcohol intake and risk of hormone-dependent cancer.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428

23 January 2015 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a consistent risk factor for breast cancer, and evidence suggests premenopausal plasma hormones are associated with breast cancer.

METHODS: Plasma concentrations of estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in samples collected in 1996-99. Average alcohol intake was calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires collected in 1995 and 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across alcohol categories and the percentage difference for the highest versus lowest category.

RESULTS: Comparing women who consumed >20 g/d with nondrinkers, levels were 25.7% higher for luteal estrone (geometric mean, 106 vs. 84.5 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.001), 27.2% higher for luteal estradiol (182 vs. 143 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.006), and 16.8% higher for SHBG (85.6 vs. 73.3 nmol/L; Ptrend = 0.03); concentrations of free testosterone were 17.9% lower (0.16 vs. 0.20 ng/dL; Ptrend = 0.002). Women consuming >10 g/d compared with nondrinkers had 26.5% higher concentrations of follicular estrone sulfate (950 vs. 751 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.04). We did not observe significant associations between alcohol and the other sex hormones evaluated. Significant positive associations were observed with beer intake, but not other alcohol types, for DHEA (Pinteraction = 0.003) and androstenedione (Pinteraction = 0.006).

CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption was significantly positively associated with plasma luteal estrogen concentrations, but not with androgen levels, nor estrone or estradiol measured in the follicular phase.

IMPACT: Differences in premenopausal estrogen levels may contribute to the association between alcohol and breast cancer.

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