01 February 2017 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

This study aims (1) to describe the context of drinking among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) by gender, (2) to explore temporal changes in the context of drinking and (3) to analyse the association between the context of drinking and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). A retrospective chart review of 12- to 17-year-old inpatients with AAI (n = 1441) of the years 2000 to 2006 has been conducted in five participating hospitals in Germany. Gender differences in the context of drinking were tested with t test and chi2 test. Differences over time were analysed using logistic regressions. Multivariate linear regression was used to predict BAC. Girls and boys differed in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. No temporal changes in drinking situation and in admission to hospital from public locations or places were found. Higher BAC coincided with male gender and age. Moreover, BAC was higher among patients admitted to hospital from public places and lower among patients who drank for coping. CONCLUSION: The results suggest gender differences in the context of drinking. The context of drinking needs to be considered in the development and implementation of target group-specific prevention and intervention measures. What is known: * The context of drinking, e.g. when, where, why and with whom is associated with episodic heavy drinking among adolescents. What is new: * Male and female inpatients with acute alcohol intoxication differ with regards to the context of drinking, i.e. in admission time, drinking situation, drinking occasion and admission context. * Being admitted to hospital from public places is associated with higher blood alcohol concentration.

01 February 2017 In Cardiovascular System

INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE).

OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE.

METHODS: Data stemmed from a random sub-cohort of a large-scale, longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands (N=2288). Group Based Trajectory Model (GBTM) was applied to extract distinct progressions of AC over time. Stratified by sex, the association between the developmental trajectories and CVE was examined with multiple logistic regression models, with adjustment for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: GBTM analysis laid bare the heterogeneity of AC dynamics over the life-course, reiterating sex differences in drinking habits and CVE risk. AC temporal behaviors during adolescence and adulthood were diverse, but showed relative stability in in middle-age and elderly years. For males, adjusted odds for CVE differed among the uncovered developmental classes.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings elicited supportive evidence for a J-shape, but with a new twist. Besides moderation the results indicate that onset, timing, duration and stability of AC over the life-course are major aspects to be accounted for when attempting to elucidate alcohol's cardio-vascular role.

15 December 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a key risk factor for young adult mortality and disease, but limited research has focused on high-risk alcohol use among individuals moving from early young adulthood into building and maintaining an initial structure of adult life. This study estimated the prevalence of a range of alcohol use behaviors among US young adults aged 25/26, examined evidence for historical change in prevalence rates, and estimated associations between alcohol use and key demographic, substance use, and adult social role characteristics.

METHODS: Data were obtained from 3542 individuals selected for follow-up from the nationally representative 12th-grade student Monitoring the Future study. Respondents self-reported alcohol use behaviors at age 25/26 during calendar years 2005-2014.

RESULTS: Two fifths (39.9%) of young adults aged 25/26 reported being intoxicated at least once in the past 30 days; 25.6% reported usually experiencing a sustained high of 3 or more hours when drinking alcohol. Past-2-week binge drinking (5+ drinks in a row) was reported by 36.3% of respondents. Past-2-week high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks in a row) was reported by 12.4%. These age 25/26 alcohol use prevalence rates remained stable over the 10 years of data examined, in contrast to significant declines over historical time in alcohol prevalence rates among these same individuals at age 18. High-risk drinking was particularly associated with being male, white, unmarried, employed, a nonparent, and an alcohol user before finishing high school.

CONCLUSIONS: Among US young adults in their mid-20s, alcohol use was highly normative and frequently included participation in high-risk drinking behaviors. High-risk alcohol use prevention approaches developed specifically to reach young adults in their mid-20s are needed, as well as efforts to increase proactive clinician screening to identify young adults participating in high-risk alcohol use.

15 December 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

AIMS: To study total alcohol consumption and its correlates, with an emphasis on the direction of causality.

METHODS: The associations among total alcohol consumption, abstaining, alcohol dependence (AD) and heavy episodic drinking were compared in 29 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in 2010.

RESULTS: Either total alcohol consumption is determined by the number of abstainers and that of alcohol dependents, or the number of alcohol dependents is determined by total alcohol consumption. The number of non-dependent heavy episodic drinkers does not play a role.

CONCLUSION: The number of alcohol dependents and abstainers seemingly determines total alcohol consumption and more efforts should be made to reduce AD.

SHORT SUMMARY: The associations between total alcohol consumption, abstaining, alcohol dependence and heavy episodic drinking were compared in 29 OECD countries in 2010. The number of non-dependent heavy episodic drinkers does not play a role. The number of alcohol dependents and abstainers seemingly determine total alcohol consumption.

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