06 May 2014 In Cancer




The effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on lung cancer risk was investigated in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study. The VITAL study is a prospective cohort of residents aged 50-76 yr in Washington state. Five hundred and eighty incident lung cancer cases diagnosed between study baseline (2000-2002) and 2007 were identified among 66,186 participants without previous cancer through the Washington Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result cancer registry. Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine, liquor, combined alcoholic beverage intake at study baseline, and alcohol intake at age 30 and 45 on lung cancer risk, with careful adjustment for smoking. There was no clear association between lung cancer and consumption of beer, red wine, white wine, or liquor at >/=1 drink/day. Combined alcoholic beverage intake of up to >/=3 drink/day was not associated with elevated overall lung cancer risk. Heavy consumption of alcohol at study baseline and at age 45 was, however, associated with more than doubling of risk for squamous cell carcinoma (hazard ratio for >/=3 drink/day at study baseline = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.36-4.73, P value for linear trend = 0.002) but not for adenocarcinoma. Alcohol intake at age 30 was not associated with lung cancer risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Several previous studies found inverse associations between alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma. However, most studies were retrospective, and few distinguished former drinkers or infrequent drinkers from consistent nondrinkers. Therefore, the authors investigated whether history of alcohol drinking affected risks of NHL and multiple myeloma among 102,721 eligible women in the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort study in which 496 women were diagnosed with B-cell NHL and 101 were diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1995-1996 and December 31, 2007. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Risk of all types of B-cell NHL combined or multiple myeloma was not associated with self-reported past consumption of alcohol, beer, wine, or liquor at ages 18-22 years, at ages 30-35 years, or during the year before baseline. NHL subtypes were inconsistently associated with alcohol intake. However, women who were former alcohol drinkers at baseline were at elevated risk of overall B-cell NHL (rate ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.97) and follicular lymphoma (rate ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 3.28). The higher risk among former drinkers emphasizes the importance of classifying both current and past alcohol consumption and suggests that factors related to quitting drinking, rather than alcohol itself, may increase B-cell NHL risk.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.




06 May 2014 In Cancer
Prospective associations between quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and cancer-specific mortality were studied using a nationally representative sample with pooled data from the 1988, 1990, 1991, and 1997-2004 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 323,354). By 2006, 8,362 participants had died of cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks. Among current alcohol drinkers, for all-site cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking (>/=3 drinks on drinking days vs. 1 drink on drinking days) was associated with increased risk among men (relative risk (RR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.41; P for linear trend = 0.001); higher-frequency drinking (>/=3 days/week vs. <1 day/week) was associated with increased risk among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.55; P-trend < 0.001). Lung cancer mortality results were similar, but among never smokers, results were null. For colorectal cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking was associated with increased risk among women (RR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.18; P-trend = 0.03). Higher-frequency drinking was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.38; P for quadratic effect = 0.03) and tended to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.17; P-trend = 0.06). Epidemiologic studies of alcohol and cancer mortality should consider the independent effects of quantity and frequency
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