27 April 2023 In General Health

PURPOSE: To assess the association between intakes of total alcohol and individual alcoholic beverages and the incidence of exfoliation glaucoma/glaucoma suspect (XFG/XFGS) status. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 195 408 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2018), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2018), and the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2019) were followed biennially. Eligible participants at each 2-year risk period were >== 40 years and free of XFG/XFGS status with available data on diet and ophthalmic examination findings. METHODS: Cumulatively averaged total (primary exposure) and individual alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, and liquor) intakes from validated dietary information every 2-4 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Confirmed incident XFG/XFGS status using medical records. We used per-eye Cox proportional hazards models, accounting for intereye correlations, to estimate multivariate-adjusted relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During 6 877 823 eye-years of follow-up, 705 eyes with XFG/XFGS status were documented.

Greater total alcohol consumption was associated significantly with higher XFG/XFGS status risk: the MVRR for XFG/XFGS status for cumulatively averaged alcohol consumption of >==15 g/day or more versus nondrinking was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.07; P = 0.02 for trend). Long- and short-term alcohol intake was associated significantly with XFG/XFGS status risk, with the strongest associations with cumulatively averaged alcohol intake as of 4 years before diagnosis (MVRR >/= 15 g/day vs. nondrinking, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.25-2.18; P = 0.002 for trend). Compared with nondrinkers, consuming >== 3.6 drinks of beer, wine, or liquor per week was associated with the following MVRRs for XFG/XFGS status: 1.26 (95% CI, 0.89-1.77; P = 0.40 for trend), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.00-1.68; P = 0.15 for trend), and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.15-1.85; P = 0.01 for trend), respectively. We did not observe interactions by age, latitude, residential tier, or intakes of folate or vitamin A (P > 0.40 for interaction); however, the association between alcohol and XFG/XFGS status was suggestively stronger for those without a family history of glaucoma (P = 0.10 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of XFG/XFGS status. Our findings provide further clues regarding the XFG/XFGS etiology.

27 April 2023 In General Health
Previous cohort studies have reported conflicting associations between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease, characterized by proteinuria and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This systematic review, which included 14,634,940 participants from 11 cohort studies, assessed a dose-dependent association of alcohol consumption and incidence of proteinuria and low estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Compared with non-drinkers, the incidence of proteinuria was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 g/day (relative risk 0.87 [95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.92]), but higher in drinkers with alcohol consumption of 36.1-60.0 g/day (1.09 [1.03, 1.15]), suggesting a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and the incidence of proteinuria. Incidence of low eGFR was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 and 12.1-36.0 than in non-drinkers (=12.0, 12.1-36.0, and 36.1-60.0 g/day: 0.93 [0.90, 0.95], 0.82 [0.78, 0.86], and 0.89 [0.77, 1.03], respectively), suggesting that drinkers were at lower risk of low eGFR. In conclusion, compared with non-drinkers, mild drinkers were at lower risk of proteinuria and low eGFR, whereas heavy drinkers had a higher risk of proteinuria but a lower risk of low eGFR. The clinical impact of high alcohol consumption should be assessed in well-designed studies.
31 March 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: The identification of effective dementia prevention strategies is a major public health priority, due to the enormous and growing societal cost of this condition. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce dementia risk. However, current evidence is inconclusive and is typically derived from small cohorts with limited dementia cases. Additionally, few studies have explored the interaction between diet and genetic risk of dementia.

METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to explore the associations between MedDiet adherence, defined using two different scores (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener [MEDAS] continuous and Mediterranean diet Pyramid [PYRAMID] scores), and incident all-cause dementia risk in 60,298 participants from UK Biobank, followed for an average 9.1 years.

The interaction between diet and polygenic risk for dementia was also tested. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence was associated with lower dementia risk (MEDAS continuous: HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.91; PYRAMID: HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-1.02 for highest versus lowest tertiles). There was no significant interaction between MedDiet adherence defined by the MEDAS continuous and PYRAMID scores and polygenic risk for dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a MedDiet was associated with lower dementia risk, independent of genetic risk, underlining the importance of diet in dementia prevention interventions.

31 March 2023 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Previous observational studies have shown that alcohol and coffee were associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the causal relationships have not been adequately explored. This study aimed to assess the potential causal associations of alcohol and coffee with CRC risk using Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in an East Asian population.

METHODS: Publicly available summary-level genome-wide association studies data on ever/never alcohol drinker (n = 165,084), alcohol consumption (n = 58,610), coffee consumption (n = 152,634), and CRC (7062 cases and 195,745 controls) were obtained from the BioBank Japan (BBJ). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly related to the exposures were identified as instrumental variables.

Five, two, and six SNPs were used for ever/never alcohol drinkers, alcohol consumption, and coffee consumption, respectively. The inverse variance weighted method was used as the main MR method to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CRC risk per one-unit change in exposures.

RESULTS: Genetically predicted ever/never alcohol drinkers (OR: 1.08; 95% CI 1.06, 1.11; P < 0.001) and alcohol consumption (OR: 1.39; 95% CI 1.21, 1.60; P < 0.001) were positively associated with CRC risk. Conversely, genetically predicted coffee consumption was inversely related to CRC risk, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.64, 0.99) (P = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Genetically predicted alcohol use and consumption were risk factors for CRC while genetically predicted coffee consumption was a protective factor.

Our findings highlight the effectiveness of keeping healthy dietary habits to prevent CRC. Further studies with more valid SNPs and CRC cases are needed. Validation of our findings is also recommended.

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