03 May 2018 In General Health
Alcoholic beverages have been consumed for thousands of years, attracting great human interest for social, personal, and religious occasions. In addition, they have long been debated to confer cardioprotective benefits. The French Paradox is an observation of a low prevalence of ischemic heart disease, with high intakes of saturated fat, a phenomenon accredited to the consumption of red wine. Although many epidemiological investigations have supported this view, others have attributed it to beer or spirits, with many suggesting that the drink type is not important. Although excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is commonly regarded to be detrimental to cardiovascular health, there is a debate as to whether light-to-moderate intake is cardioprotective. Although there is extensive epidemiological support for this drinking pattern, a consensus has not been reached. On the basis of published work, we describe the composition of wine and the effects of constituent polyphenols on chronic cardiovascular diseases
03 May 2018 In General Health
There have been conflicting reports on the association of alcohol use and diverticular disease. We aimed to determine the odds of developing diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding in patients who consumed alcohol on a regular basis compared with those who did not. MEDLINE and PUBMED were searched up until February 2017 on observational trials, which investigated the effect of alcohol use on two outcomes of diverticular disease: diverticulosis and diverticular bleeding. Quantitative estimates (odds ratios [OR] and confidence intervals [CI]) from included studies were pooled by using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the I2 statistic. In 6 studies including 53,644 subjects and 6 studies including 3,404 subjects, alcohol consumption on a regular basis was not associated with either diverticulosis (OR=1.99; 95% CI 0.99-4.03, I2=99%) or diverticular bleeding (OR=1.39; 95% CI 0.84-2.32, I2=45%) compared to subjects who did not consume alcohol on a regular basis, respectively. Increased odds of diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding among individuals who consume alcohol on a regular basis were not observed in these meta-analyses
03 May 2018 In Drinking Patterns
The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD) or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area. The main characteristics of personality related to the practice of BD, regardless of the theoretical model used, are high Impulsivity and high Sensation seeking, as well as Anxiety sensitivity, Neuroticism (Hopelessness), Extraversion and low Conscientiousness. The data obtained may have theoretical implications to elucidate the endophenotype of BD, but they are especially useful for their preventive applications. Integration into prevention programs of emotional self-control skills, decision-making, social skills, and strategies to manage negative emotions will minimize the risk factors or consequences of BD associated with personality and will improve their effectiveness. In the future, it is necessary to harmonize a common measurement instrument for the assessment of personality, develop longitudinal studies with large samples that also integrate biological and neurocognitive measurements, and determine the reciprocal relationship between personality and BD together with its modulating variables, as well as the possible cultural differences
03 May 2018 In Diabetes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to examine and summarize studies reporting on the epidemiology, the risk of developing diabetes, and the cardiovascular effects on individuals with diabetes of different levels of alcohol consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Men consume more alcohol than women in populations with and without diabetes. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of diabetes in the majority of the studies, whereas heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are at increased risk for diabetes. Among people with diabetes, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption reduces risks of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations with diabetes compared to the general population. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of diabetes and, as in the general population, improves cardiovascular health in patients with diabetes. Type of alcoholic beverage, gender, and body mass index are factors that affect these outcomes
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