06 May 2014 In Diabetes

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring diphenolic compound exerting numerous beneficial effects in the organism. The present study demonstrated its short-term, direct influence on lipogenesis, lipolysis and the antilipolytic action of insulin in freshly isolated rat adipocytes. In fat cells incubated for 90 min with 125 and 250 microM resveratrol (but not with 62.5 microM resveratrol), basal and insulin-induced lipogenesis from glucose was significantly reduced. The antilipogenic effect was accompanied by a significant diminution of CO(2) release and enhanced production of lactate. The inhibition of glucose conversion to lipids found in the presence of resveratrol was not attenuated by activator of protein kinase C. However, acetate conversion to lipids appeared to be insensitive to resveratrol. In adipocytes incubated for 90 min with epinephrine, 10 and 100 microM resveratrol significantly enhanced lipolysis, especially at lower concentrations of the hormone. However, the lipolytic response to dibutyryl-cAMP, a direct activator of protein kinase A, was unchanged. Further studies demonstrated that, in cells stimulated with epinephrine, 1, 10 and 100 microM resveratrol significantly enhanced glycerol release despite the presence of insulin or H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. The influence of resveratrol on epinephrine-induced lipolysis and on the antilipolytic action of insulin was not abated by the blocking of estrogen receptor and was accompanied by a significant (with the exception of 1 microM resveratrol in experiment with insulin) increase in cAMP in adipocytes. It was also revealed that resveratrol did not change the proportion between glycerol and fatty acids released from adipocytes exposed to epinephrine. Results of the present study revealed that resveratrol reduced glucose conversion to lipids in adipocytes, probably due to disturbed mitochondrial metabolism of the sugar. Moreover, resveratrol increased epinephrine-induced lipolysis. This effect was found also in the presence of insulin and resulted from the synergistic action of resveratrol and epinephrine. The obtained results provided evidence that resveratrol affects lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes contributing to reduced lipid accumulation in these cells.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular benefits of light to moderate red wine consumption often have been attributed to its polyphenol constituents. However, the acute dose-related hemodynamic, vasodilator, and sympathetic neural effects of ethanol and red wine have not been characterized and compared in the same individual. We sought to test the hypotheses that responses to one and two alcoholic drinks differ and that red wine with high polyphenol content elicits a greater effect than ethanol alone. Thirteen volunteers (24-47 yr; 7 men, 6 women) drank wine, ethanol, and water in a randomized, single-blind trial on three occasions 2 wk apart. One drink of wine and ethanol increased blood alcohol to 38 +/- 2 and 39 +/- 2 mg/dl, respectively, and two drinks to 72 +/- 4 and 83 +/- 3 mg/dl, respectively. Wine quadrupled plasma resveratrol (P < 0.001) and increased catechin (P < 0.03). No intervention affected blood pressure. One drink had no heart rate effect, but two drinks of wine increased heart rate by 5.7 +/- 1.6 beats/min; P < 0.001). Cardiac output fell 0.8 +/- 0.3 l/min after one drink of ethanol and wine (both P < 0.02) but increased after two drinks of ethanol (+0.8 +/- 0.3 l/min) and wine (+1.2 +/- 0.3 l/min) (P < 0.01). One alcoholic drink did not alter muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), while two drinks increased MSNA by 9-10 bursts/min (P < 0.001). Brachial artery diameter increased after both one and two alcoholic drinks (P < 0.001). No beverage augmented, and the second wine dose attenuated (P = 0.02), flow-mediated vasodilation. One drink of ethanol dilates the brachial artery without activating sympathetic outflow, whereas two drinks increase MSNA, heart rate, and cardiac output. These acute effects, which exhibit a narrow dose response, are not modified by red wine polyphenols.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Although heavy alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on heart health, moderate drinking is thought to have cardioprotective effects, reducing the risk of coronary artery disease and improving prognosis after a myocardial infarction. It still is unclear, however, if this effect can be achieved with all types of alcoholic beverages and results from the alcohol itself, from other compounds found in alcoholic beverages, or both. For example, the polyphenolic compound resveratrol, which is found particularly in red wine, can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis; however, it is not clear if the resveratrol levels present in wine are sufficient to achieve this result. Alcohol itself contributes to cardioprotection through several mechanisms. For example, it can improve the cholesterol profile, increasing the levels of "good" cholesterol and reducing the levels of "bad" cholesterol. Alcohol also may contribute to blood clot dissolution and may induce a phenomenon called pre-conditioning, whereby exposure to moderate alcohol levels (like short bouts of blood supply disruption [i.e., ischemia]), and result in reduced damage to the heart tissue after subsequent prolonged ischemia. Finally, the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2, which is involved in alcohol metabolism, also may contribute to alcohol-related cardioprotection by metabolizing other harmful aldehydes that could damage the heart muscle.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Several beneficial effects of resveratrol (RES), a natural antioxidant present in red wine have already been described. The aim of our study was to investigate if RES had a clinically measurable cardioprotective effect in patients after myocardial infarction. In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial 40 post-infarction Caucasian patients were randomized into two groups. One group received 10 mg RES capsule daily for 3 months. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), several laboratory and hemorheological parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Left ventricular ejection fraction showed an increasing tendency (ns) by RES treatment. However, left ventricular diastolic function was improved significantly (p < 0.01) by RES. A significant improvement in endothelial function measured by FMD was also observed (p < 0.05). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the RES treated group. Red blood cell deformability decreased and platelet aggregation increased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.05), while resveratrol treatment has prevented these unfavourable changes. Concerning other measured parameters no significant changes were observed neither in placebo nor in RES group. Our results show that resveratrol improved left ventricle diastolic function, endothelial function, lowered LDL-cholesterol level and protected against unfavourable hemorheological changes measured in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

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