06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Agents to counteract acquired resistance to hormonal therapy for breast cancer would substantially enhance the long-term benefits of hormonal therapy. In the present study, we demonstrate how resveratrol (Res) inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation, including MCF-7 tamoxifen-resistant cells (IC(50) values for viability were in the 30-45 muM range). We show that Res, through p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, causes induction of p53, which recruits at the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) proximal promoter, leading to an inhibition of ERalpha expression in terms of mRNA and protein content. These events appear specifically p53 dependent, since they are drastically abrogated with p53-targeting siRNA. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed specific interaction between p53, the Sin3A corepressor, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which was phosphorylated. The enhancement of the tripartite complex p53/Sin3A/HDAC1, together with NF-Y on Res treatment, was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, with a concomitant release of Sp1 and RNA polymerase II, thereby inhibiting the cell transcriptional machinery. The persistence of such effects in MCF-7 tamoxifen-resistant cells at a higher extent than parental MCF-7 cells addresses how Res may be considered a useful pharmacological tool to be exploited in the adjuvant settings for treatment of breast cancer developing hormonal resistance.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Although excessive consumption of ethanol in alcoholic beverages causes multi-organ damage, moderate consumption, particularly of red wine, is protective against all-cause mortality. These protective effects could be due to one or many components of the complex mixture of bioactive compounds present in red wine including flavonols, monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols, highly colored anthocyanins as well as phenolic acids and the stilbene polyphenol, resveratrol. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, firstly in cancer chemoprevention and then later for cardioprotection, has stimulated many studies on the possible mechanisms of action. Further indications for resveratrol have been developed, including the prevention of age-related disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. These improvements are remarkably similar yet there is an important dichotomy: low doses improve cell survival as in cardio- and neuro-protection yet high doses increase cell death as in cancer treatment. Fewer studies have examined the responses to other components of red wine, but the results have, in general, been similar to resveratrol. If the nonalcoholic constitutents of red wine are to become therapeutic agents, their ability to get to the sites of action needs to be understood. This mini-review summarizes recent studies on the possible mechanisms of action, potential therapeutic uses, and bioavailability of the nonalcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, in particular resveratrol and other polyphenols.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that a mild to moderate drinking of wine, particularly red wine, attenuates the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk. However, the experimental basis for such health benefits is not fully understood. The cardioprotective effect of wine has been attributed to both components of wine: the alcoholic portion and, more importantly, the alcohol-free portion containing antioxidants. Wines are manufactured from grapes, which also contain a large variety of antioxidants, including resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins. Resveratrol is mainly found in the grape skin, whereas proanthocyanidins are found only in the seeds. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol and proanthocyanidin are the major compounds present in grapes and wines responsible for cardioprotection. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence that grapes, wines, and resveratrol are equally important in reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular complications. Both wines and grapes can attenuate cardiac diseases such as atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Recently, wine was also found to increase life span by inducing longevity genes. It appears that resveratrol and proanthocyanidins, especially resveratrol, present in grapes and wines play a crucial role in cardioprotective abilities of grapes and wines.

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